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Final Exam


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Equity Theory
Compare your outcome (inputs) ratio to others' outcome ratio. Equity is when your O/I ratio is equal to other O/I ratio. Inequity is when your O/I ratio is greater or less than others O/I ratio. To regain equity, you can raise your outcomes, reduce your inputs, others can raise others' inputs and others can reduce others' outcomes.
Nonverbal Communication
Because in employees eyes, managers' actions often speak louder than managers' words
Types of Formal Communication Channels
Written: memos, letters, annual reports. Oral: telephone, face to face conversation, meetings. Electronic / Interactive: e-mail, voicemail, texting etc.
A reaction to conflict that involves ignoring the problem by doing nothing at all, or deemphasizing the disagreement
Barriers to Communication Within Organizations
Closed communication climate. Top heavy organizational culture. Long lines of communication. Lack of trust between management and employees. Competition for power, status, rewards. Fear of reprisal for honest communication. Differing frames of reference among communicators. Lack of communication skills. Ego involvement. Turf wars
Job Design Process
Implementation / Concepts --> Core Job Dimensions --> Favorable Outcomes. Important Job Dimensions: Variety, Identity, Significance, Autonomy, Feedback and Play
Advantages of Oral and Written Communication
Oral: Immediate feedback, nonverbal clues (grateful, forceful), Written: Documentation, careful / thoughtful (convenient, economical)
Social Loafing
Working less hard and being less productive when in a group
Overcoming Organizational Barriers to Communication
Open environment for interaction / feedback. Promote horizontal communication. Allow for anonymous feedback. Information through formal channels. Train managers and employees in communication skills. Equal rewards for individual and team achievements. Teams.
Phases in Team Development
Forming -> Storming -> Norming -> Performing
Task Roles
Roles that group members assume which help the group meet goals.
Open Book Management
Practice of sharing with employees at all levels of the organization vital information previously meant for management's eyes only.
Informal Communication
Learn more through the grapevine
Communication Channel Situation 5
Describe a straightforward but somewhat detailed and updated version of a voicemail system to 1000 employees who are geographically dispersed. Poor choice: newletter; Better choice: video
How Groups Use Power to Obtain Member Conformity
Conformity leads to desired outcomes. Desired outcomes lead to satisfaction. Satisfaction leads to conformity
Social Facilitation Effect
Working harder when in a group than when working alone
Organizations' Role in Goal Setting for its People
Organizations set S.M.A.R.T. goals that are okay with you (codesigned), not too easy but not too difficult (reasonable) and easy to observe and evaluate (measurable)
A style of dealing with conflict involving cooperation on behalf of the other party but not being assertive about one's own interests
Virtual Teams
Teams that are physically dispersed and communicate electronically more than face to face.
Tips to Improve Listening
Tune in, filter using frame of reference, separate facts from opinions; judge objectively, store message, respond with feedback
Improving the Interpersonal Communication Process
Realize that communication is imperfect. Adapt the message to the receiver. Improve your listening and language skills. Question your preconceptions. Plan for feedback. Realize that communication is 2 way, not 1 way. Be objective with negative information, be subjective with positive information
10 Greatest Management Principles (Table 13.1)
State that companies and managers should reward workers who: Come up with solid solutions, take risks, apply creativity, take decisive action, do smart work, simplify etc.
Communication Channel Situation 4
Group of engineers who are geographically dispersed want to exchange design ideas with one another. Poor choice: teleconference; Better choice: fax, computer conference
The process of sharing power with employees, thereby enhancing their confidence in their ability to perform their jobs and their belief that they are influential contributors to the organization. Makes employees see meaning in their work, feel competent, get a sense of determination and get a sense of impact
Reasons Team Form
Better decisions, faster response, increased productivity, greater buy-in, less resistance to change, improved employee morale, reduced risks
Alderfer's ERG Theory
Categorizes the needs in 'Existence' (similar to Maslow's 1st and 2nd needs), Relatedness (Maslow's 3rd and 4th) and Growth (Maslow's 5th). Order not important,; existence and growth happen at the same time.
Transnational Teams
Work groups composed to multinational members whose activities span multiple countries.
Attribution Theory
Internal and external forces. 1. Me and others; my view of me. Failure is external, success is internal. 2. Me and others; my view of others. Failure is external, success is internal. 3. Manager and associate: manager view of associate. Associates' success is external; associates failure is internal. 4. Manager view of self: manager success is internal; manager failure is external. For SELF ACTUALIZED person / manager, success and failure are both internal.
Reinforcement Schedules
Continuous: every behavior gets a reinforcer; Fixed Interval: every xth time period gets a reinforcer; Variable Interval: on average every xth time period gets a reinforcer; Fixed Ratio: every xth unit gets a reinforcer; Variable Ratio: on average every xth unit gets a reinforcer
Management Teams
Teams that coordinate and provide direction to their subunits under their jurisdiction and integrate work among subunits
Relationship Roles
Roles that group members assume which ensure that the group functions smoothly.
Reinforcement Types
Positive reinforcement: good reinforcer applied; Negative Reinforcement: negative reinforcer removed; Punishment: bad reinforcer applied; Extinction: good reinforcer removed. 'Mand' - same person gives stimulus and reinforcement. 'Tact' - stimulus and reinforcement provided by different people.
A style of dealing with conflict emphasizing both cooperation and assertiveness to maximize both parties' satisfaction.
Communication Channel Situation 1
In the case of the midsize construction firm that wants to announce a new employee benefit program, a memo would be a poor choice and a small group meeting would be a better choice.
Parallel Teams
Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily
Methods of Group Decision-Making
Majority, Consensus, Minority, Averaging, Authority rule with discussion
Barriers to Good Listening Practices
Inattention, prejudgment, frame of reference, closed mindedness, pseudolistening, hearing impairment, noisy surroundings, speaker's appearance, lag time.
Traditional and Team Environment. Table 14.1
Suggests that team environments encourage employees and managers to collaborate and gives employees freedom to do more than simply the task asigned to them. Risk taking encouraged. Traditional environment is opposite.
Work Teams
Teams that make or do things like manufacture, assemble, sell or provide service.
Expectancy Theory
Asks if effort will lead to performance (Expectancy), will performance result in outcome (Instrumentality), and will outcome be valuable (Valence). E, I and V must be kept high.
Communication Channel Situation 3
Increase enthusiasm in a midsize insurance company for a program that asks employees from different departments to work on the same project team. Poor choice: email or voicemail; Better choice: face to face or telephone
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
States the following human needs in order: physiological, safety, social, ego, self actualization. Most critical need is ego and self actualization.
Communication Channel Situation 2
A manager wishes to confirm a meeting time with 10 employees. Poor choice: phone; Better choice: voicemail or email
Types of Group Conflict
Cognitive: centers on issues; stimulates discussion. Affective: centers on personalities, not issues; disruptive, dysfunctional.
Job Enrichment
Changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding, motivating and satisfying
Boundaryless Organization
Organizations in which there are no barriers to information flow.
Barriers to Interpersonal Communication
Bypassing, Limited Frame of Reference, Lack of Language Skills, Lack of Listening Skills, Emotional Interference
Job Enlargement
Giving people additional tasks at the same time to alleviate boredom
Dysfunctional Roles
Roles that group members assume which disrupt group functioning and hurt group performance
Project and Development Teams
Work on long term projects but disband once work is completed
What Organizations Want to Motivate People to Do
Want to motivate people to join them, stay with them, show up regularly, do things for the organization and become stewards of the organization.
A style of dealing with conflict involving strong focus on one's own goals and little or no concern for the other person's goals
A style of dealing with conflict involving moderate attention to both parties' concerns.
Job Rotation
Changing from one routine task to another to alleviate boredom
Communication Process Model
1. Sender has idea 2. Sender encodes idea in message. 3. Message travels over channel. 4. Receiver decodes message. 5. Feedback travels to sender. 6. Possible additional feedback to receiver
McClelland's Theory
McClelland's Manager's Needs; Need Achievement (accomplishment, success, goal reaching), Power (influence and control of others) and Affiliation (to be liked). Most successful managers are high achievement, high power and low affiliation.

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