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Sociology Test 3


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sexual harassment
The making of unwanted sexual advances by one indvidual toward another, in which the first person persists even though it is clear that the other party is resistant.
glass ceiling
A promotion barrier that prevents a woman's upward mobility within an organization.
glass escalator
The process by which men in traditionally female professions benefit from an unfair rapid rise within an organization.
The dominance of men over women. All known societies are patriarchal, although there are variations in the degree and nature of the power men exercise, as compared with women. One of the prime objectives of women's movements in modern societies is to combat existing patriarchal institutions.
The dominance of women over men. No known societies are matriarchal.
world systems theory
Pioneered by Immanuel Wallerstein, this theory emphasizes the interconnections among countries based on the expansion of a capitalist world economy. This economy is made up of core countries, semiperipheral countries, and peripheral countries.
market oriented theory
Theory aobut economic development that assumes that the best possible economic consequences will result if individuals are free to make their own economic decisions, uninhibited by governmental constraint.
state centered theory
A development theory that argues that appropriate goverment policies do not interfere with economic development, but rather can play a key role in bringing it about.
modernization theory
A version of market oriented theory that argues that low-income societies develop economically only if they give up their traditional ways and adopt modern economic institutions, technologies, and cultural values that emphasize savings and productive investment.
The biological and anatomical differences distinguishing females from males.
Soical expectations about behavior regarded as appropriate for the members of each sex. Gender referes not to the physical attributes distinguishing men and women but to socially formed traits of masculinity and femininity. The study of gender relations has become one of the most imporant areas of sociology in recent years.
A form of social stratification in which some people are literally owned by others as their property.
A social system in which one's social status is given for life.
social construction of gender
The learning of gender roles through socialization and interaction with others.
Money and material possessions held by an individual or group.
Payment, usually derived from wages, salaries, or investments.
Kuznet's Curve
A formula showing that inequality increases during the early stages of capitalist development, then declines, and eventually stabilizes at a relatively low level; advanced by the economist Simon Kuznets.
intergenerational mobility
Movement up or down a social stratification hierarchy from one generation to another.
intragenerational mobility
Movement up or down a social stratification hierarchy within the course of a personal career.
cultural capital
The advantages that well-to-do parents usually provide their children.
relative poverty
Poverty defined according to the living standards of the majority in any given society.
absolute poverty
The minimal requirements necessary to sustain a healthy existence.
American class structure
Super Rich: 400 Richest Americans have wealth equal to $1 trillion, or 1/10 of USA GDP. Upper Class: the wealthiest Americans, those with income >$157,185; 5% of all households. Middle Class: >50% of all US households – Upper Middle Class $88029-$157,184; 15% of all US households, advanced degrees, secure jobs and children with college education; high income professionals, mid level corporate managers – Lower Middle Class $34738-$88,028; trained office workers, elementary and high school teachers, nurses, police officers Working Class: 20% of all US households; $18500-$34737; At least two people in each household have to work. Secretaries, office workers Lower Class; 15% of all households < $18499. Dead end jobs, unemployment Underclass: “New Urban Poor” Lack access to the world of work
Pierre Bourdieu
A French sociologist who sees class gouprs as identifiable according to their varying levels of cultural and economic capital. cultural tastes & leisure pursuits > economic or occupational factors Also remarked on the importance of cultural capital to children's futures.
world poverty
1.3 billion people world wide -- 25% of the world population. Poverty is increasing.
Margaret Mead
Studied gender roles in New Guinea in the 1960's. Her observations showed wide differences with gender roles in the US, so that claims of universality of gender roles were dismissed. Arapesh society-- Men & Women showed dominant characteristics that typically apply to the western woman (passive, gentle, unagressive, and emotionally responsive). Mundugumeor-- Men & Women showed dominant characteristics that typically apply to the western man (aggressive, suspicious, and cruel). Tchambuli-- Men & Women showed characteristics opposite of their western counterparts.
functionalist's view of inequality
Family operates most efficiently with clear cut gender roles.
Marx's view of inequality
Marx placed the primary emphasis on class, which he saw as an objectively given characteristic of the economic structure of society. He saw a fundamental split between the owners of capital and the workers who do not own capital.
Weber's view of inequality
Weber accepted a similar view, but distinguished another aspect of stratification, status. Status refers to the esteem, or "social honor," given to individuals or groups.
Kingsley Davis
With Wilbert Moore, he gave a functionalist explanation of stratification. Certain positions in society are more important (brain surgeons), and few are able to fulfill them. Rewards (higher salaries) are offered to attract qualified people. This suggests that stratification is necessary. Also, suggests that personal position is based solely on innate talents.
second shift
Movement of women into professions, not just work force.
US definition of poverty
Poverty line: three times the cost of a nutritionally adequate diet – a strict no frills budget that assumes a nutritionally adequate diet could be purchased for $3.86 per day for each member along with about $7.72 for other items. A family of four needs $19350.
Talcott Parsons' view of gender inequality
Functionalist. Concerned with the role of the family in industrial societies -- particularly with the socialization of children. Says women belong in expressive roles (care giving and security providing)and men belong in instrumental roles (breadwinning). Says that a child needs a stable family environment to socialize successfully.
Bush Tax Cuts
Supported by middle class, even though it benefits the upper class most (reduced taxes on dividends, capital gains, and estate tax). The income gap is getting much bigger. People know that the support will go to the upper class, but support the tax cuts anyway. People's failure to connect inequality with public policy.
The Pill
Margaret Sanger -- feminist who wanted the pill for "sexual equality" Gregory Pincus -- reproductive physiologist who developed the pill Katharine Dexter McCormick -- rich feminist & financier for the pill John Rock -- OB/GYN who helped launch the pill as a human resource. Film says the pill is single-handedly responsible for the rise of women in the workplace and for the decrease of gender inequality.
Elizabeth Warren
Harvard lawyer who says... Men today make $800 less average income than their fathers made in the 1970's Savings as a percentage of personal disposable income has gone from 11% to negative in the same time period Food, Clothing and Car prices all went down Yet the median family spends 76% more on a mortgage compared to 30 years ago A family who has employer sponsored health insurance pays 74% more than a generation ago Since the late 1990's, more children live in homes that file for bankruptcy than live in homes that file for divorce.
Gary Becker
Explanation of stratification: Much of the widening gap in incomes reflects the rising payoff for a college education and other skills. As returns to education increase, more people attend.

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