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Treatment of Obesity
2)Dieting - Groups
Little diff. amoung them but commerical groups' success greater than self help (9.5vs3lbs&gainingback).
Treatment of Obesity
3) Surgery
4) Drugs
3) Gastric bypass increasing
4) No self-efficacy; study in conjunc with beh; 3 yr longit study with appetite surpressant sucessful (adolescents; long-term effects?)
Treatment of Obesity
5) Exercise
DaVinci invented first pedometer (most research in Japanese) Steps per day: 8-10 (12000-16000 steps, <forgirls); Adu;ts 7000, Older adults 6000.
Treatment of Obesity
5) Exercise cont.
Study in Amish: men 18500 and women 14200, only 4% obese, 20% overweight.
Study (2004): Overweight adults need small(30min/day) exer. to prevent further weight gain (without dieting); women from 30-40 gain 10lb on average.
Treatment of Obesity
5) Predictors of Exercise
1) self-efficacy (confidence 0.48) 2) Income and higher ses. 3) Gender (men exer. more) 4) Expecting benefits 5) Enjoyment 6) Soc. support 7) Physicians' influence 8) Access
Treatment of Obesity
5) Barriers to Exercise
Promote adherence to phy. activity by:
1) self monitoring 2) goals (specific, quant, short term) 3) self reinforcement 4) changing self talk 5) soc. support 6) shaping (gradual) 7) relapse prevention (avoid situations)
No support for pedometers' effectiveness.
1) Drugs mimicking neurotransmitters
2) Drugs blocking vs. enhancing neurotransmitter; caffeine blocks drug inhib. acety. to increase excitement.
Physical Dependence
Psychological Dependence
1) Use of drug for phy. comfort; physiological withdrawl (not making neurotrans anymore of that type); drug tolerance
2) Ex. Marjuana, nicotine (for men vs. setting for women) Comfort level
1) Elevate level of brain activity (ex. caffeine, cocaine, riddolin, nicotine, amphet)
2) Lower brain activity (alcohol, marjuana, opium/opiates such as heroine; longterm: stops creating endorphines; methodone maintenance given instead for rest of lives)
Reasons for Addiction
1) Biomedical
A) Genetic Components
1) A) Alcoholism (stronger in men the genetic compon)
Nicotine possibly has genetic compon, dopamine involved? Creates a protein ridding excess dopamine; dopamine defficient more likely to smoke.
Reasons for Addiction
1) Biomedical
B) Altered Neurochemistry
B) Neurotrans abornormally low ex. inc dopamine to counteract depression. Nicotine Titration Model:
Constant level of Nic. in sys for constant neurotrans levels; vit c so Nic. not absorbed as much led to more smoking. Critics: does not explain relapse later.
Reasons for Addiction
1) Biomedical
C) Reward Center Activation
C) Study: Rats; hypothal septal area for pleasure, lever to stim septal area; many drugs in pathways affecting reward center. Why abuse drugs with neg side affects? First exp not pleasurable, why continue?
Reasons for Addiction
2) Psychosocial
A) Cues in environment
A) Peers/friends smoking; starting smoking largely situational factors (71% start with friends); study: 11 yr olds' reasons were image, pleasure, friends, sexual arousal. Rare that friends/parents not smokers.
Reasons for Addiction
2) Psychosocial
A) Cues in environment
2004 Statistics
Adults: 20.9% (21.6 in 2003, 22.5 before) Higher in Europe.
18-24: 28.5%
High school: 21.7%
Middle school: 8.4%
College degree: 12.1% (lower)
Men higher (25% vs. women 20/18%)
Alask. Natives 41%; Whites 23.6%; Hisp 16.7%; Asians 13.3%, Af Am low
Reasons for Addiction
2) Psychosocial
A) Cues in environment cont.
Targeting poor pop./minorities; defense: take market share from other companies. Raising cig. tax dec. smoking rates (soc. engineering); Kentucky (highest smoking rate, 27.6%) and Utah (lowest, 10%) Virginia (24%) Trying to quit 50%.
Reasons for Addiction
2) Psychosocial
B) Self Handicapping (alcohol)
C) Self Awareness Model
B) Blame, readymade excuse such as lack of sleep.
C) Less critical of oneself; defensive technique
Therapy for Addiction
1) Aversion Therapy
1) Physical: Anabuse with alcohol causes sickness, classical cond.; smoking until sick. Taxes: smoking lower 3% and 15% in teenagers.
Therapy for Addiction
2) Innoculation Training
How to say no, alternative beh, Nic. patch (70% of sm. want to quit, <10% are successful in adults), 20% can quit for six months patch then stop, recommended amount not enough.
Therapy for Addiction
2) Innoculation Training cont.
Quit Lines: not many studies, double effectiveness than self-help; best if used with (free) patches; half of insurance companies pay to help quit (such as patch) but will for lung cancer.
Pyschoactive Drugs
Recreational; alter mood, beh, thought; categories: stimulants, depressants (tranquil, sedatives, hypnotics), hallucinogens.
- Barbiturates: group of depressants block pain during surgery and reg. hypertension
Drug Potentiation
Group of depressants block pain during surgery and reg. hypertension.
When bar. are taken in combination with another drug their effects will inc. effects.
(Opiates are another group of depressants)
Staying Healthy
Message Framing:
Balanced diet:
Gain vs. loss framed messages; detection vs. prevention beh.
55% carb (complex), 30% fats, 15% proteins
Coronary Heart Disease
Serum chol. in lipoproteins: Low density, very low, both linked to heart diseae vs. high density protecting.
Diet implicated in 1/3 of all US cancer deaths; sat. fat esp. from animal products. Vit A w/ Beta-carotene, vit C and E protect from free radicals and carcinogenic nitrasamines.
Genetic disorders, brain, hormones and obesity.
Stepped Care
Ob gene regulating leptin (hormone produced by fat which hypoth. monitors as an index of obesity).
Stepped Care
Exposure-response prevention
- Type of treatment
- BMI below 18; slowed thyroid func, low bp, anemia, smollen joints.
- Prevent purging after bingeing

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