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The Pharmacy Technician Chapter 8


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What are the 2 general types of products parenterals are packaged as?
LVP-large volume parenteral solutions and SVP-small volume parenteral solutions
What would be a visual sign of lack of stability in a parenteral solution?
precipitation or crystallization in the solution
What are aseptic techniques?
techniques that maintain sterile conditions and prevent contamination
What are pyrogens?
chemicals that are produced by microorganisms
Can pyrogens be removed by sterilizing or filtering the solution?
What is meant by a pyretic reaction?
What is the osmolarity of blood?
about 300 mOsmol/L
What is meant by isotonic?
when a solution has an osmolarity equivalent to that of blood
What is osmotic pressure?
the characteristic of a solution determined by the number of dissolved particles in it
What is meant by hypertonic?
intravenous solutions that have greater osmolarity than blood
What is meant by hypotonic?
intravenous solutions that have lower osmolarity than blood
What can hypertonic and hypotonic solutions do?
may cause damage to red blood cells, pain, and tissue irritation
What constitutes as an LVP solution?
intravenous solutions packaged in containers holding 100 mL or more
What are the 2 ports on LVP solutions called?
the administration port and the medication port
What identifies the administration port from the medication port?
the administration port has a plastic cover; the medication port is covered by a protective rubber tip
How are medications that cannot be placed in plastic administered and packaged?
glass IV bottles are used; they are packaged with a vacuum, sealed by a solid rubber closure, and the closure is held in place by an aluminum band
What are the 4 most commonly used LVP solutions?
sodium chloride solution, dextrose solution, Ringer's solution, and Lactated Ringer's solution
What is an ampule?
an elongated sealed glass container with a neck that must be snapped off
What are 4 names of Ready-To-Mix systems?
Add-Vantage, Add-a-Vial, Mini-Bag Plus, CRIS Controlled Release Infusion System
What is meant by lyophilized?
freeze dried
What is the lumen of the needle?
the hollow bore of the needle
What are Slip-Tip, Luer-Lok, eccentric, and oral referring to?
different types of syringe tips
How does a depth filter work?
works by trapping particles as the solution moves through twisting channels
How does a membrane filter work?
consists of many small pores of a uniform size that retain particles larger than the pores
What are 3 types of filters?
membrane, depth, and final filters
What is commonly used in a depth filter?
diatomaceous earth, procelain, and asbestos
What is meant by laminar flow?
continuous movement at a uniform rate in one direction
What is a HEPA filter?
a high efficiency particulate air filter
Are TPNs hypertonic or hypotonic?
What is the source of protein in a TPN solution?
an amino acid solution
What is the source of carbohydrate calories in a TPN solution?
a dextrose solution
What is a TNA?
Total Nutrient Admixture solution; a TPN solution that contains intravenous fat emulsion
What are the 2 typical solutions for surgical irrigation and what is their purpose?
Sodium Chloride or Sterile Water; used to bathe and moisten body tissues, moisten dressings, and wash instruments
What are the 2 most commonly used Urologic Irrigation Solutions and what is their purpose?
Glycerine Irrigation and 3% Sorbital Irrigation solutions; they maintain tissue integrity and remove blood to maintain a clear field of vision
What type of solution is used during operations to maintain tissue integrity and remove blood?
urologic irrigation solutions
A mole is the number of grams numberically equal to the ____ weight of the drug.
molecular weight
What is molecular weight?
the sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms that make up the drug molecule.
What is the formula to find a drug's osmolarity?
osmole = (molecular weight)/(# of ions)
What type of filter is used to filter solutions as the solution is expelled from the syringe?
membrane filters
Chapter 8
Evms practice exam

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