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04- pathology: physical injuries


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Degree of tissue damage due to blunt force trauma is determined by these 3 things
1. rate of transfer of force
2. surface area where force is applied
3. area of body injured

mechanical injury that produces focal hemorrhage
Contusion (bruise)
Pooled blood within tissue
In a contusion, macrophages change hemoglobin into ________ (blue --> yellow--> green)

frictional force to epidermis or scraping of the epidermis causes hemorrhage in exposed dermal vessels
Abrasion over large area = ?
Brush Burn
disruption of skin and underlying soft tissues or internal organs due to external force
In a _______ injury, intact bridging blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue remain intact
Wound produced by a sharpened weapon
Incised Wound
Surface > Depth
Incised wound
Depth > Surface
Stab wound
Example of a 1st degree burn
Explain 2nd degree burn
"Partial-Thickness" dermal epithelial structures are spared. Blistering and destruction of the epidermis and slight damage to underlying dermis
Explain 3rd degree burns

"Full-thickness" Dermal epithelial structures are entirely destroyed.

Skin Graft is required
___% full-thickness body surface burns are potentially fatal
#1 cause of death due to thermal burns
Infection, usually P. aeruginosa
4 Complications of Thermal Burns
1. Adult respiratory distress syndrome from inhalation of smoke or hot gases
2. Fluid loss
3. Infection
4. Contractures
Electrical Energy is converted to _______
Electrical energy applied to skin causes __1__. It is a __2__ burn with __3__ margins. It disrupts the __4__ system. High voltage may cause __5__. Lightning produces a __6__ pattern.

1. cutaneous burn
2. punched-out
3. blackened
4. cardiac
5. charring
6. fern-like
__1__ current is more dangerous than __2__ current
1. alternating
2. direct
Alternating current produces __1__.

Direct current produces a __2__.
1. tetanic contractions
2. single shock
The size of pure lead balls that weigh one pound
The entrance wound is usually __1__ and __2__ than the exit wound
1. smaller
2. rounder
Exit wounds are usually __1__ and have a __2__ shape
1. larger
2. stellate
Ring of dirt on the clothing
Bullet wipe
Entrance wounds have a round perforation on the skin with a ________
abrasion collar
Stellate-shaped containing powder and soot
Contact wound
Long range wounds cause no _______ and have no ______
powder tattooing (stippling)

Abrasion collar
Bullets that tend to always fragment

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