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EMT - Chapter 32: Musculoskeletal Injuries


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The functions of the musculoskeletal system are:
- To give the body shape
- To protect the internal organs
- To provide for movement
What are the three kinds of muscles?
Voluntary (Skeletal)
Involuntary (Smooth)
Muscles that are found in the walls of organs and help move food through the digestive system
Involuntary Muscles
Muscles found on the walls of the heart
Cardiac Muscles
Muscles that are under the control of a person's will.
Voluntary Muscles
Most voluntray muscles are attached at one or both ends to the skeleton. True or false
Composed of specialized connective tissue, ______ connect muscle to bone.
Composed of specialezed connective tissue, _______ connect bone to bone.
Places where bones meet?
The 6 basic components of the skeletal system are?
Skull, Spinal Column, Thorax, Pelvis, Lower Extremities, and Upper Extremities.
A broken bone is a _______
An injury to a muscle or muscle and tendon that have been overextended or stretched is a ________
An injury to a joint with possible damage to or tearing of ligaments
The displacement of a bone from its normal position in a joint.
3 Forces cause bone and joint injury:
Direct Force
Indirect Force
Twisting Force
Direct Force
direct blow, occurs at the point of impact.
Indirect Force
The force impacts on one end or a limb, causing injury some distance away from the point of impact. (brace yourself on fall, sprain wrist 'direct force', dislocate ipsilateral shoulder 'Indirect force.'
Twisting Force
one part of the extremity remains stationary while the rest twists.
What two types of fractures are considered to be critical injuries?
Femur and Pelvis.
How many liters of blood can be lost in a femur fracture?
Approximately 1-2 liters
How many liters of blood can be lost in a pelvic fracture?
Approximately 2 liters.
If a patient has a life-threatening condition that is not directly related to the or caused by the extremity injury you should?
Initiate Transport and if time permits, during transport immobilize the injury.
Pulseness and cyanosis distal to an injury is not a serious condition. True or False
False, Transport this patient immediately after immobilizing the injury, immeidately following your focused history and physical exam.
DCAP-BTLS stands for:
Deformities, Contusions, Abrasions, Punctures and Penetrations - Burns, Tenderness, lacerations, and Swelling.
SAMPLE stands for:
Signs/Symptoms, Allergies, Medications, Pertinent Past History, Last Oral Intake and Events leading to call for assistance.
Bone and Joint injuries can be one of two types:
Closed or Open
Injury in which the overlying skin is intact is _______ injury
Injury in which an open wound is associated with the fracture; bone may or may not protrude through the wound.
Signs and Symptoms of Bone and Joint Injury:
Deformity or Angulation
Pain and Tenderness
Grating or Crepitus
Severe Weakness/loss of func.
Bruising (discoloration)
Exposed bone ends
Joint locked into position.
The sound or feeling of broken fragments of bone grinding against each other
Pt reports he twisted his ankle while playing soccer, there is some swelling, however no extreme deformity or pertruding bones. What should you do?
Treat the pt as if he has a sprain, strain, dislocation, or broken bone and provide appropriate medical treatment.
List steps to properly immoblize a suspected fracture.
1. BSI
2. Adminster Oxygen if needed
3. In-line spinal stabilization
4. Splint bone/joint injury
5. Apply cold packs
6. Elevate the extremity
7. Transport.
Any device used to immobilize a body part is a ______
Any splint can be commerically manufactured or it can be improvised from virtually any objects that can provide stability. True or False
What are the two reasons for splinting a bone?
1. prevents movement of bone fragments, bone ends, or dislocated joints.

2. Reduce pain and minimize further complications from injury.
PMS Stands for
Pulse, Motor function, and sensation.
PMS should be evaulated every _____ minutes after applying the splint.
When in doubt, splint the injury.

True or False
What are the Three phases of Trauma Care.
How a person was injured is also known as...
Mechanism of Injury
The science of analyzing mechanisms of injury, predicts the kind and extent of injuries as a basis for your priority decisions regarding continuing assesment, care, and transport.
Kinetics of Trauma
The branch of mechanics dealing with the motions of material bodies.
The energy contained in a moving body or bodies is called,...
Kinetic Energy
The amount of kinetic engergy a moving body contains depends on two factors:
Mass x Velocity(squared)

Divided by 2
Law of Inertia
A body at rest will remain at rest, and a body in motion will remain in motion, unless acted upon by an outside force.
The rate at which a body in motion increases is known as:
The rate at which a body in motion decreases speed is known as:
In regular vehicular collisions, there are 3 types of collisions:
Vehicle Collision
Body Collision
Organ Collision
The fall is the most common and most deadly mechanism of injury.

True or False
False, the fall is the most common, however, vehicle collisions attribute to 1/3 of all deaths of trauma.
A brief period of unresponsiveness or disorientation followed by a return of alertness may be a sign of;
Brain injury.
5 Classifications of Motor Vehicle Accidents:
Rotating and Rollovers
Frontal Impacts (MVA):
Open and over the steering wheel, or down and under the steering wheel.
The chance of sustaining an injury is increased by ____% when an occupant is ejected.
The chance of cervical spine injury is increased by _____% if an occupant is ejected.
Up and Over Pathway or Full/partial ejection; you should look for what types of injuries:
abdomen, chest, face, head and neck.
Down and Under Pathway, you should look for injuries of the:
knees, femurs, hips, acetabulum, and spine.
A child who is about to be hit by a vehicle, whether walking or riding a bike turns toward the oncoming vehicle.

True or False
An Adult pedestrian being struck by a vehicle turns toward the oncoming vehicle.

True or False
False, the adult turns away from the vehicle, causing the injuries to generally be on the side of the body.
Three types of Motorcycle collisions:
Head On Impact
Angular Impact
In falls greater than ____ ft, internal organs are likely to be injured from deceleration forces; the liver, spleen, kidney and heart
20 feet
Falls from ____ x the person's height, will most likely result in a spinal injury.
3 x the person's height.

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