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Sternberg's Cognitive Psyc 3rd ed chapter 6


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True or False: In short term store, most errors in recall are made with letters that are acoustically similar more than visually simiular
Although encoding in short term memory seems to be mostly acoustic, what is the secondary encoding process being used
semantic encoding. Some visual as well, although it is more vulnerable to decay.
True or false: Long term memory uses mainly visual encoding?
false. it uses primarily sematically encoded items, that is, encoded by the meanings of the words. although some visual encoding does occur.
In terms of memory, define consolidations
The process of integrating the new data into our existing schemas of stored information. In humans, the process of consolidating declarative information into memory can continue for many years after teh initial experience.
define metacognition
our ability to think about and control our own processes of thought and ways of enhancing our thinking.
define rehearsal
the repeated recitation of an item. The effects of such rehearsal are termed practice effects.
What is the difference between overt rehearsal and covert rehearsal?
In overt rehearsal, it is usally aloud and obvious to anyone watching while conver is mostly silent and hidden.
define distributed practice
learning in which various sessions are spaced over time
define massed practice
sessions crammed together all at once.
true or false: The greater the distibution of learning trials over time, the more the participants remembered over long periods.
True of false: REM (rapid eye movement) plays no significant role in memory consolidation.
define the 'total time hypothesis'
the amount of learning depends on the amount of time spent mindully rehearsing the material, more or less without regart to how that time is divided into trials in any one session. (DOES NOT ALWAYS HOLD TRUE)
Define elaborative rehearsal
the person somehow elaborates the items to be remembered in a way that makes the items etier more meaningfully integrated into what the person already knows or more meaningully connected to one another and therefore more memorable.
define maintenance rehearsal
the person simply repetitiously rehearses the items to be repeated, temporarily maintains information in short-term memory without transferring the infromation to long-term memory. Without any kind of elaboration, the information cannot be organized and transferred.
define mnemonic devices
specific techniques to help you memorize lists of words.
List the 7 most frequent mnemonic devices
Categorical clustering, Interactive Images, Pegword system, Method of Loci, Acronym, Acrostic, and Keyword system.
What is the function of Categorical clustering.
Organize a list of items into a set of categories.
What is the function of interactive images
Create interactive images that link the isolated words in a list
What is the function of the pegword system
Associate each new word with a word on a previously memorized list, and form an interactive image between the two words.
What is the function of the method of Loci
Visualize walking around an area with distincitve landmarks that you know well and then link the various landmarks to specific items to be remembered.
What is the function of acronym
Devise a word or expression in which each of its letters stands for a certain other word or concept.
What is the function of acrostic
Form a sentence rather than a single word to help you remember the new words.
What is the function of the keyword system
Form an interactive image that links the sound and meaning of a foreign word with the sound and meaning of a familiar word.
Define forcing functions
physical constraints that prevent us from acting without at least considering the key information to be remembered.
eg: to ensure that you remember to take your notebook to class, you might leasn the notebook against the door.
define retrospective memory
our memory for the past
define prospective memory
memory for things we need to do or remember in the future
define exhaustive serial processing
implies that the participant always would check the test didit against ALL digits in the positive set, even if a match were found partway through the list.
define self-terminating serial processing
implies that the participant would check the test digit against only those digits needed to make a repsonse.
what is the problem when applying a parallel model to a retrieval task involving more items
a wider range of retrieval speeds for the various items is also more likely, with the entire retrieval process not complete until the last item has been retrieved.
What tends to yeild better results in a recall task; cued recall or free recall
cued recall
define availability
the presence of information stored in long term memory
define accessibility
the degree to which we can gain access to the available information
What are the two most well-known theories for forgetting information stored in working memory.
Interference theory and decay theory.
define interference theory
occurs when competing informations causes us to forget something
define decay theory
occurs when simply the passage of time causes us to forget.
Define trigrams
a string of 3 letter words
define retention interval
the time between the presentation of the last letter and the start of the recall phase of the experimental trial.
define retroactive interference.
an activity occurring AFTER we learn something but BEFORE we are asked to recall that thing.
define proactive interference
interference that occures when the interfering material occurs BEFORE, rather than AFTER, learning of the to-be-remembered material
Explain the Brown-Peterson paradigm
The percentage of recall of trigrams drops off quickly if participants are not allowed to rehearse the trigram (because they are counting backwards by 3's)
True or false: Prior knowledge does not effect memory.
False. prior knowledge has an enormous effect on memory, sometimes leading to interference or distortion.
Define recency effect
superior recall of words at and near the end of a list .
Define primacy effect
superiour recall of words at and near the beginning of a list.
What are the main points of the serial position curve.
Items at the start of a list are remembered well because of the primacy effect, items near the end of a list are remembered well because of the recency effect, and items in the middle of a list have the poorest recall.
True or false: Evidence exists for both interference AND deacy theories in short term memory.
define reconstructive memory
involves the use of various strategies for retrieving the original memory traces of our experiences and then rebuilding the original experiences as a basis for retrieval.
define constructive memory
prior experince affects how we recall things and what we actually recall.
define autobiographical memory
memory of an individual's history. This memory is constructive: One does not remember exactly what has happened; rather, one remembers one's construction or reconstruction of what happened.
List 7 specific ways in which memories are distorted.
Transience, Abesnt-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias, persistence
Define transience.
Memory fades quickly.
define absent-mindedness
people sometimes brush their teeth after already having brushed them or enter a room looking for something only to discover that they have forgotten what they were seeking.
define blocking
people have something that they know they should remember, but they can't. It's as though the information is on the tip of their tongue, but they cannot retieve it.
define misattribution
People often cannot remember where they heard what they heard or read what they read
define suggestibility
people are susceptible to suggestion, so that if it is suggested to them that they saw something, they may think they remember seeing it.
define bias
people often are biased in their recall. for example, people who currently are experiencing chronic pain in their lives are more likekly to remember pain in the past.
define persistence
people sometimes remember things as consequential that, in a broad context, are inconsequential. For example, someone with many successes but one notable failure may remember the single failure better than the many successes.
true or false: Children's memories are no more susceptible to distortion than an adults.
false. The younger the child, the less reliable the memory is.
True or false: Our cognitive contexts for memory clearly influence our memory processes of encoding, storing and retrieving information.
Name 2 factors that enhances our confidence in our recollected memories
expertise and perceived clarity.
define flash-bulb memory
a memory of an event so powerful that the erson remembers the event as vividly as if it were indelibly preseved on film.
true or false: the emotional intesity of an experience may enhance the likelihood that we will recall the particular experience.
True or false: The state that you learn an object in does not have a greater impact on recall than the meaning of the object.
False. state of mind or environment has a massive impact on the ability to recall a memory or item.
define encoding specificity
what is recalled depends on what is encoded.
True or false: Recognition memory is alost always better than recall memory

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