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USAP Chapters 6 -


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Impact of the Revolution on Native Americans
Coastal tribes mostly already gone b/c of white settlement, European disease
Powerful tribes remain b/n Appalachians and Mississippi River
Both Americans and British wanted Indian alliances
Americans urge Iroquois to stay neutral, they pledge neutrality
Americans raid Mohawk territory --> Iroquois join up w/British
Iroquois and British raid parts of NY, PA
Americans raid Iroquois --> loss of 1/3 of Iroquois population
Treaty of Paris (1783)
September 1783
England recognizes American independence
Sets W'ern boundary of US at Mississippi River
US fishermen given the right to fish in Newfoundland waters
British forces will leave America
US agrees to recommend that states restore Loyalists' rights
Both sides agree that prewar debts between countries would still hold
Strengths/Weaknesses of each side in the Revolution
- Dutch/French loans, supplies, troops
- Determination not to submit
- Washington's administrative and organizational talents --> strong military force
- Disorganized, uncooperative
- Could not give consistent direction
- State militias would not fight beyond their own borders
- Inadequate supplies, low pay
- Ineffective Congressional support

- Military/naval superiority
- More troops, better supplied, armed, trained
- Difficulty maintaining supply routes across the Atlantic
- Had to live off the land --> reduced mobility
- Fought only in European style
Experience of the Revolution for Recruits
About one of every 2-3 adult males fought
Secured citizens' commitment - separated Patriots and Loyalists
Mostly poorer men fought over time b/c rich bought substitutes
Experience of the Revolution for Soldiers
Frustration w/camp life, late pay, etc. --> open revolt (sometimes)
Shortage of supplies
Personal deaths
Insufficient medical treatment --> overcrowded hospitals
At least 25,000 soldiers killed
Experience of the Revolution for Civilians
British occupation --> disruptions of urban life
Coastal communities, densely populated areas most affected
Burnings on coastal plain --> overpopulation of inland communities (coastal refugees)
Experience of the Revolution for Loyalists
Those who were still loyal to the crown - suffered greatest losses
During the war, all colonies passed laws depriving Loyalists of voting, property, etc.
Punishing Loyalists for their anti-independence thought became popular
After the war, many colonies repealed these laws
Many Loyalists leave w/British troops after Treaty of Paris
Land Ordinance of 1785
Systematic survey/sale of region west of NY/PA and north of OH River
Beginning of Midwestern rectangular grid pattern of townships
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Political organization of same region dealt with in Land Ordinance of 1785
(west of NY/PA, north of OH River)
Popularly elected territorial assemblies --> states to be part of the Union
Prohibited importation of new slaves --> area became attractive to white farmers
Conquest Theory
After the Revolution, Congress worked as if Native Americans were "conquered" people
Natives lost the war (allies of England) --> came under US control
Treaty of Paris gave US political power of natives East of Mississippi River
Employing the theory
- Mid-1780s - Congress imposes land treaties on interior tribes
- Many natives flee to Canada, those who stay lose lots of land
- Treaty of Fort Stanwix, 1784 (first congressional treaty w/Native Americans)
Six Nations cede most of their land to US
These kinds of treaties didn't hold up, tribes resist white expansion into interior
Shays' Rebellion
Daniel Shays (former soldier, unpaid for military service) leads mob at MA Supreme Court
In response to new taxes b/c of heavy debt b/c of banking crisis
Continental Congress sends more military to contain Shays
Militia chases Shays and his followers across MA for the next few weeks
Eventually found, legislature pardons all but Shays and a few others -
- eventually they too are pardoned
Supporters of stronger national gov't
Important Federalists: Washington, Hamilton, Madison, Jay
The nation was in a political crisis threatening its survival
Social and political change had gone too far
Feared loss of their own social/political power
Vision of expanding commercial republic
Constitutional Convention
Philly, May 1787
Assembly of delegates from every state except RI
Many debates about formation of US gov't (see specific IDs)
August 6, 1787: debate over final details; results:
- Electoral process created to bring only good and experienced people into nat'l office
- Slave trade would not end for 20 more years (southern states' request)
James Madison
VA delegate to the Constitutional Convention
Brought his own design for new gov't based on articles by Thomas Jefferson: Virginia Plan
Made large contributions to convention's work, arguing nationalist cause
Alexander Hamilton
NY delegate to Constitutional Convention
Extremely nationalist
Originally a favorite of the merchant community
Became Washington's aide during the war
Virginia Plan
Subject of first focused debate at Convention
Suggested powerful nat'l gov't (bicameral)
- Lower house elected by people
- Upper house (Senate) elected by lower house
- President named by Congress
- Nat'l judiciary
- Council of revision
Smaller states objected b/c the plan suggested proportional state representation
New Jersey Plan
Suggested as replacement for Virginia Plan
Retention of Articles of Confederation as basic structure of gov't
Congress gets power to tax, regulate foreign/interstate commerce
The Great Compromise
July 12, 1787
Agreed upon by Franklin, Roger Sherman, others
- Representation in the lower house based on total of state's white population + 3/5 of black population
- Direct taxes also applied in this way
- Each state gets equal vote in Senate
Basically Democrats
Opposed Constitution
Against central federal gov't: would threaten state ideas
Thought "Republican empire" would lead to factional conflict
Separation of 3 gov't branches won't stop power abuse: gov't must be simple
Gov't must be closely tied to people
Federalist Papers
Series of essays written by Madison, Hamilton, John Jay
To promote ratification of Constitution in NY, reprinted by Federalists elsewhere
Explained virtues of Constitution, responded to Anti-Federalist attacks
Discussion of gov't power: power is the sponsor of liberty
"Factional conflict is an inevitable accompaniment of human liberty"
The Ratification Debate
Nine states ratify the Constitution
(MA after Federalists agree to a Bill of Rights --> convinced Anti-Federalists)
Eventually all states ratify it
The French Revolution
French revolutionaries kill the French monarch
Many businesses still sell their goods to French
(alliance of 1778, problems w/England)
Many Americans supported English
Citizen Edmund Genet
French minister
Came to America trying to get US seamen to attack British ships
Denounced Washington's neutrality proclamation, urged Americans to support French
Washington asks him to leave the country
The Jay Treaty
Instigated by John Jay, Spring 1794
England agrees to leave the West in a year if it gets access to the fur trade South of Great Lakes
No compensation for slaves taken by British at end of the war
No guarantees against impressment of US seamen
No compromise on neutral rights
No agreement to open West Indies to US shipping
Caused protest in US on many levels --> country divided on foreign/domestic policy
Treaty of San Lorenzo
Negotiated by Thomas Pinckney, 1795
Spain recognizes US boundaries, gives up all of their land on US territory
Spain gives the US free navigation of the Mississippi
Washington's Farewell Address
- Federal gov't
- Religion/morality
- Public credit
Warns against:
- Party system!!
- Foreign alliances
- Overly large military
The Election of 1796
John Adams
- Federalist
- Former US minister to Britain in 1780s
- Washington's VP
- Wanted more political discipline
Thomas Jefferson
- Democratic-Republican
- Former US minister to France in 1780s
- Washington's Secretary of State
- Supported Constitution
- Thought French Revolution was an extension of US struggle for freedom
- Wanted to expand political democracy
Adams wins by 3 electoral votes
The XYZ Affair
Adams sends 3-person commission to France
French agents demand $ to French gov't and to themselves
Two commissioners reject these demands and go home, third stays
US outraged --> Adams gets popularity
The Alien and Sedition Acts
Alien Act of 1798
Passed by Federalist Congress
French immigrants active in Jeffersonian opposition
Allowed Pres to expel all aliens he judges "dangerous to peace and safety of US"
Sedition Act of 1798
Aimed at Jeffersonian opposition also
Made it a crime to conspire against gov't or to aid insurrection/riots
Luther Baldwin
Resident of Newark, NJ
Speaks sedition of Pres. Adams
Indicted by local grand jury
Fined, given court costs, put in jail until both paid
Led to Jeffersonian protests
The Kentucky Resolution
Drafted by Jefferson, passed November 16, 1798
- Nat'l gov't had violated Bill of Rights
- Each state has the right to judge infractions and punishment
- Nullification is the correct remedy for unconstitutional laws
The Virginia Resolution
Drafted by Madison, passed December 1798
When central gov't threatens people's liberties, states can "arrest the progress of the evil"
The Election of 1800
(aka The Revolution of 1800)
C.C. Pinckney, John Jay (Federalists) vs. Thomas Jefferson, Aaron Burr (Republicans)
Jefferson wins
President goes from Federalist to Republican
Congress also has this party switch
Pierre L'Enfant
Gov't decides to move from Philly to District of Columbia, November 1800 (Adams' presidency)
Frenchman commissioned to develop a plan for the new capital
Assisted by black American mathematician Benjamin Banneker
Federalist Judiciary Act of 1801
Passed at end of Adams' presidency by Federalist Congress
- Increased number of circuit courts
- Filled all offices with Federalists
Repealed February 1802
John Marshall
Chief Justice of Supreme Court, appointed by Adams
Marbury v. Madison
McCulloch v. Maryland
Marbury v. Madison
Established judicial review (court judges constitutionality of congressional laws)
McCulloch v. Maryland
No state has the right to tax national banks
Internal Improvements
Begun by Jefferson
Launched construction of routes westward (i.e. National Road)
New states beyond Appalachians wanted closer trade/communication ties
National Road
Connected Cumberland, MD to Wheeling on OH River
Part of Jefferson's internal improvements
The Jeffersonian Vision
Political liberty is possible only under economic/social equality
Territorial expansion is good
Opportuniity for restless people
Social equality
Secures US against European powers
Strengthens Jeffersonians, weakens Federalists
Adams-Onis Treaty
Spain gives US East Florida
US extends territorial claims to include Pacific Northwest
Lewis and Clark
Summer 1803 - Jefferson dispatches expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
- Explore far Northeast
- Make contact w/natives there
- Open fur trade
- Bring back scientific information about the area
Led by Sacajawea, explored for 2.5 years across lots of land
Came back to St. Louis September 1806
Zebulon Pike
1805-06 - Lt. Pike explores sources of Mississippi River --> Rocky Mountains
Pike's Peak
Walking City
Name for a small coastal city b/c people who lived there could walk from one side of the city to the other
These small cities --> crowding, congestion
Long and Short Staple Cotton
Long-staple cotton grew only where soil and climate right for it (sea islands off GA, SC)
Short-staple cultivated in more areas but harder to cultivate
Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin
Eli Whitney invents cotton gin 1793 to solve short-staple problems
Southern cotton production skyrockets
By 1805, cotton = 30% of US agricultural exports, by 1820, 50%
Jefferson's foreign policy principles
England is still the principal enemy, but France is an enemy too
Overseas commerce - important to security and prosperity of US!
(markets for US produce)
Maintaining peace: war kills people, destroys property, inflames politics, stifles free speech, increases public debt, expands gov't power
Barbary States
1801-1805: Jefferson sends naval vessels to Mediterranean to defend US commmerce vs. Barbary States
(Algiers, Morocco, Tripoli, Tunis)
Problems with Neutrality
1803 - British/French war tension
Congress: Non-Importation Act of 1806 (no importing English goods)
British blockade European coast
Napoleon forbids all communication/commerce w/Britain
Chesapeake Affair
June 1807
British warship Leopard stops US ship Chesapeake off VA coast
Claims that 4 Chesapeake crew members were British runaways, demand their return
Americans refuse, Leopard opens fire
Embargo Act of 1907 (and its impact)
Forbids all US ships from sailing to foreign ports
British profit b/c no US competition
US exports fall 80% in a year, imports fall 50%
Ship workers' unemployment --> depression in port cities
Guerilla skirmishes b/n federal troops and citizens b/c citizens trying to smuggle
The Election of 1808
James Madison (R) defeats Jefferson
Federalists gain seats in Congress and recapture some state legislatures
Assimilationist Policy
Assimilationists didn't care for Indian culture
Demanded that natives stop being Indian and adopt white societal ways
Treaty-Based Strategy
1789 - Gov't changes Indian policy
Natives are rightful occupants of US soil, so must give consent for US to take their land
All future land transfers: through treaties
Devised Cherokee alphabet --> 1st written Indian language
Part of the assimilation into white ways (written language)
Shawnee leader in establishing alliance w/whites
Carried message of Indian nationalism
William Henry Harrison
Gov. of IN Territory - surrounds Indian army w/US army
Indians attack Harrison's army --> Harrison wins (Battle of Kithtippecanoe)
Harrison's victory at Battle of Thames -->
end of Tecumseh's confederacy, end of Indian resistance in Old Northwest
Second Great Awakening
Personal salvation, sense of social belonging in religious enthusiasm wave
Crossed class/race boundaries
Preaching/salvation of souls
Key points:
- Equality of all believers before God
- Promise of universal salvation
- Each individual responsible for his or her own soul
Gabriel Prosser
1800, Virginia
Slave who plans to arm 1000 slaves for an assualt on Richmond
Attack delayed by rain, black house servants uncover the secret
Whites' revenge - slaves/free blacks arrested and/or hanged, incl. Prosser
American Colonization Society
Established 1816
Supported view that free blacks should be relocated to Africa, slow emancipation is safe
Many supporters of ACS didn't like slavery but believed the races couldn't coexist
Others: slaveholders - deportation to Africa is a good way to reduce free black population
African Methodist Episcopal Church
Established 1816
Formed from merge of Bethel African American Methodist Church and independent Negro Methodist congregation
First independent black denomination in US
Part of creation of new black organizations
War Hawks
Group of mostly Republican W'ern/S'ern leaders dissatisfied w/unstable gov't
Wanted tougher measures:
US has tolerated too long...
British presence in America
British encouragement of Indian raids
British attacks on US commerce
Resented British arrogance, US humiliation
Talk of territorial expansion
Hartford Convention
Federalist New England opposed to war
December 1814 - delegates from 5 New England states meet in Hartford, CT
Debate over secession
Asserted right of states to interpose its authority vs. gov't's unconstitutionality
Oliver Hazard Perry
US Commander who defeats British fleet on Lake Erie, 1913
Battle of New Orleans
1815 - Andrew Jackson defeats British
Treaty of Ghent
Ignored impressment, blockades, neutral rights, US access to Canada's fisheries
British evacuation of W'ern ports
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State under Monroe
Opposed British suggestion to stop Spain's re-claiming of US colonies
Urged independent action
The Monroe Doctrine
December 1823 - outlining Latin American policy
- American continents closed to European colonization
- American/European political systems separate
- Any attempt to extend European influence into W'ern Hemisphere: dangerous!
- US will not interfere w/existing New World colonies nor deal w/European internal issues
Little effect - US didn't have $ or military to enforce it
Second National Bank
March 1816 - created by Madison to help economic expansion
Part of nat'l development program after War of 1812
Protective Tariff
December 1816 - Duties on imported wool, cotton, iron, hats, sugar
Also part of Madison's nat'l development program post-War of 1812
American System
Proposed by Nat'l Republicans
More ambitious tariffs, internal improvements
Response to Madison's nat'l development post-War of 1812
Missouri Crisis and Compromise
1819 - Missouri applies for admission to the Union (no law about slavery in West yet)
Debate of Congress' authority in slavery prevention
Missouri Compromise
MO gains admission as a slave state
Maine enters also as balancing free state
Line drawn west from MO to Rockies dividing lands slavery/not
"Corrupt Bargain"
Election of 1816:
- John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay: strong federal economic development
- William Crawford, Andrew Jackson: Jeffersonian small gov't, states' rights
No electoral majority --> House
Alliance of Adams/Clay supporters --> Adams victory even though Jackson was beating Adams in electoral votes
Jackson calls it a "corrupt bargain"
Adams makes Clay Secretary of State --> Jackson even unhappier

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