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goals of Progressives
wanted the average citizen to have more control over his government; wanted to eliminate government corruption by increasing government efficiency; supported more focus on education, regulation of large corporations, child labor laws and organized labor laws, prohibition, and conservationism
contradictions of Progressives
wanted to support European immigrants but also supported heavy Americanization; wanted to improve conditions for the poor, but were largely racists; did not fight the Espionage and Sedition Acts; fought for female suffrage, but did not believe women and men were equal
the Muckrakers
investigative journalists who exposed such issues as crime, fraud, waste, and general illegal practices as were condoned by big businesses and government
Lincoln Steffens
a Muckraker who investigated government and political corruption
Upton Sinclair
wrote 'The Jungle,' which exposed poor conditions in the American meatpacking industry and contributed in part to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act
Ida Tarbell
a Muckraker and one of the first major journalists to have taken on a huge corporation such as Standard Oil; attacked Rockefeller's business practices
John Dewey
a major representative of the progressive and progressive populist movements; advocated democracy wherein voting rights were extended to every citizen and public opinions were fully formed
W. E. B. Du Bois
the first African-American to have received a doctorate from Harvard; head of the NAACP; campaigned for increased political representation for blacks; an outspoken opponent of scientific racism
the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; seeks to eliminate racial hatred and discrimination
initiative, referendum, and recall
initiative: in which any citizen or organization may gather a predetermined number of signatures to qualify a measure for a ballet; referendum: in which a predetermined number of signatures qualifies a ballot measure repealing a specific act of the legislature; recall: in which voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote
Robert M. La Follette, Sr.
an American Progressive who served as governor and representative of Wisconsin at separate points; was prominently opposed to the dominance of corporations over the government; an opponent of trusts, bossism, World War I, and the League of Nations
Eugene V. Debs
one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World; was one of the best-known socialists in the country; partook in the Pullman Strike, which was originally a compensation dispute between the workers and managers of the Pullman Palace Car Company; ran for president five times as the leader of the Socialist Party
the Socialist Party
formed in 1901 when the Social Democratic Party of America and elements of the Socialist Labor Party merged; was supported by trade unionists, progressive social reformers, populist farmers, and immigrant communities; staunchly opposed American involvement in World War I
Theodore Roosevelt
the twenty-sixth president of America; leader of the Progressive Movement; became president upon William McKinley's assassination; supported increased regulation of businesses and general equality among citizens; completed the Panama Canal; negotiated an end to the Russo-Japanese War, for which he won a Nobel Peace Prize
Woodrow Wilson
the twenty-eighth president of America; persuaded Congress to pass the nation's first-ever progressive income tax; ended U.S. neutrality in World War I in 1917; issued his 'Fourteen Points' in the last stages of the war and helped shape the Treaty of Versailles, but refused to compromise on disallowing America from joining the League of Nations
the 1912 election
a four-way contest between Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, and Eugene Debs; eventually won by Wilson
Warren Harding
won the presidency in a landslide election as the first incumbent United States senator; rewarded friends and political contributors with financially powerful positions, which eventually led to the corruption of his administration; spurned the League of Nations and signed a separate peace treaty with Germany and Austria, ending World War I
Calvin Coolidge
succeeded to the American presidency upon the sudden death of Warren Harding; restored public confidence in the federal government; reduced the size of government programs and strongly supported the middle class
Herbert Hoover
believed in the Efficiency Movement, which held that the government and the economy were riddled with inefficiency and waste and could be improved by experts; tried to combat the Great Depression with volunteer efforts; ultimately written off as ineffective as a president
the National Origins Quota Act
limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to two percent of the number of people from that country already residing in the States; wanted to further restrict immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe as well as Asia
the idea that the worker must be paid higher wages in order to afford the products as produced by the industrialist, causing the economy to self-stabilize
Ford Motor Company
Henry Ford's automobile-manufacturing business; became the top-selling brand in America in the early century
the Model T
the car that set 1908 as the year the automobile became popular; the first car to be mass-produced on assembly lines with interchangeable parts; the first car to be widely available to the middle class
Ford and antisemitism
sponsored a weekly newspaper that published antisemitic propaganda; was never outspokenly antisemitic but allowed such sentiments in the 'Dearborn Independent,' which he did not personally write in or edit but which he endorsed
'The Birth of a Nation'
an American silent film which dramatized the Civil War and Reconstruction eras as well as Lincoln's assassination; depicted black men as dumb and sexually aggressive towards white women; depicted the Klu Klux Klan as heroes
the rebirth of the Klu Klux Klan
inspired by the movie 'The Birth of a Nation'; preached Americanization and purification of politics; racist, anti-Catholic, anti-Communist, nativist, and and antisemitic; a violent fraternal organization
the Harlem Renaissance
a cultural movement centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City that also influenced French-speaking black authors from African and Caribbean colonies who resided in Paris; represented an explosion of musical and artistic culture that was to be the mark of the New Negro; an expression of racial pride that challenged racism and stereotypes to promote racial and social integration
Alain Locke
the "father" of the Harlem Renaissance; began a publication titled 'The New Negro,' a collection of writings by African-Americans; wanted to make people aware of the potential for black equality worldwide
Zora Neale Hurston
an Africa-American folklorist and anthropologist who rose to prominence during the Harlem Renaissance; used idiomatic speech in her works of fiction; wrote 'Their Eyes Were Watching God'
Langston Hughes
an American poet during the Harlem Renaissance and one of the earliest innovators of jazz poetry
Allies and Central Powers
the Allies: the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire; the Central Powers: the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria
U.S. "neutrality"
in which the United States declared war on Germany, but entered the war as an "associated power" in order to maintain other international relationships
the Lusitania
an ocean liner that apparently fell to torpedo attack early in the war before tactics for evading submarines were fully realized or understood; how she actually sank is hotly contested
unrestricted submarine warfare
a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchantmen without warning
the Zimmerman Telegram
in 1917, a diplomatic proposal from the German Empire to Mexico to make war against the United States
the Committee on Public Information
an independent agency of U.S. government that sought to influence public opinion of American participation in World War I
the Espionage and Sedition Acts
the Espionage Act prohibited any attempt to hinder military operations, to support U.S. enemies during wartime, to promote military insubordination, or to interfere with recruitment; the Sedition Act forbade the use of disloyal language about the government
Eugene Debs and World War I
was arrested for publicly denouncing the war in a speech in Canton, Ohio; was sentenced to ten years in prison, a sentence that Wilson refused to reduce
the Red Scare
an anti-Communist nationwide hysteria caused by rising anxiety that the Russian Revolution would inspire a revolution in America that would change everyone's lifestyles
the Seattle General Strike
a general work stoppage by over sixty-five thousand workers in Seattle, Washington; non-violent; caused by the workers' desire for higher wages in light of the World War I wage controls; viewed publicly as a radical Communist movement
the Palmer Raids
attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists--especially anarchists--from the United States; prominent in the wake of the Red Scare, during which everyone was wary of radicals
Amendment XIX
allows everyone to vote regardless of sex
the Great Migration
the movement of two million blacks out of the south into the Midwest, northeast, and west; blacks wanted to escape racism and seek jobs in industrial cities
the farm crisis
for the first time in history, more Americans lived in urban centers than on farms; the States was transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial one
the Stock Market Crash of 1929
came during a period of low real estate values in America; the single most devastating stock market crash in the history of the country; signaled the beginning of the twelve-year depression that affected all industrialized countries in the west
shanty towns built by homeless people during the Great Depression
the Dust Bowl
a period of severe dust storms causing ecological and agricultural damage to American prairies; was caused by severe drought and careless farming; made millions of acres of farmland useless
Hoover and voluntarism
feared too much government intervention in the economy would destroy individuality and self-reliance; did not believe in direct aid
the Reconstruction Finance Corporation
an independent agency of the government that gave two billion in aid to state and local governments and made loans to major businesses during the Great Depression; played a major role in the relief programs taken over by the New Deal
unemployed councils
local councils formed by the Communist Party that fought for public assistance for the people; helped unemployed people get food and resist evictions
the Ford Hunger March
a demonstration of unemployed workers starting in Detroit and ending in Dearborn that resulted in four workers being shot to death by police and security guards; was organized by the Communist Party; led to the unionization of the industry
the Scottsboro Boys
nine black teenaged boys accused of rape in Alabama in 1931; their case dealt with racism and the right to a fair trial; their fate is now widely considered a miscarriage of justice that led to the end of all-white juries in the south
the International Labor Defense
a legal defense organization in the States that participated in the defense of the Scottsboro Boys; associated with the Communist Party; later became the Civil Rights Congress
the Bonus Expeditionary Force
an assembly of forty-three thousand marchers--World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups--who gathered in Washington to demand immediate cash-value redemption of their service certificates
the election of 1932
in which Franklin D. Roosevelt used Hoover's failures as a platform for his own election, promising economic reform in what he called the New Deal; Roosevelt won by a landslide; marked the end of the Progressive Era
The First Hundred Days
in which Roosevelt met with Congress for one hundred days to take immediate action to resolve the issues raised by the Great Depression; led to bank and monetary reforms; Congress granted every one of his requests and even passed a few programs he opposed
the Emergency Banking Act
a congressional act that allowed a plan to close down insolvent banks and to also reopen and reorganize banks that were strong enough to survive the Depression
the Agricultural Adjustment Act
restricted agricultural production so as to raise the value of crops; paid farmers subsidies to not use all their farmland and to kill off excess livestock
the AAA and sharecroppers
since sharecroppers did not own their land, all they were ordered to do was destroy crops; they soon found themselves out of work and in poverty
the National Industrial Recovery Act
a statute which allowed the president to regulate industry and permit monopolies in order to stimulate economic recovery; established a national public works program
the National Recovery Administration
the primary New Deal agency established by Roosevelt; sought to eliminate cutthroat competition by bringing industry, labor, and government together to create codes of fair practice and set prices; was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court
section seven, part A of the National Industrial Recovery Act
guaranteed the rights of workers to form unions and outlawed yellow-dog clauses (in which the employee is forced as a condition of employment to not join a labor union)
the National Labor Relations Act
limits the means with which employers may react to workers who create labor unions, engage in collective bargaining, and partake in strikes
the Social Security Act
began as a measure to protect impoverished senior citizens; was an attempt to limit the dangers of old age, poverty, unemployment, and the burdens of widows and fatherless children
the Civilian Conservation Corps
a public work relief program for unemployed, unmarried men; provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by the government
the Works Progress Administration
the largest New Deal agency that carried out public works projects; worked to construct public buildings and roads and operated large artistic projects; fed children and redistributed food, clothing, and housing
the Tennessee Valley Authority
a federally-owned corporation that promoted navigation, flood control, electricity, fertilizer, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley
Roosevelt and African-Americans
issued an executive order that stated the federal government would not hire any person based on their race, color, creed, or national origin; eventually he signed an executive order that prohibited discrimination by any government agency
the New Deal Coalition
a collective of groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal; included the Democratic party, big city machines, labor unions, minorities, liberal farmers, intellectuals, and white southerners

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