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IS/Chapter 2


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continuous improvement
constantly seeking ways to improve business processes to add value to products and services.
technology, organization, and environment (TOE) framework
Diffusion and infusion often depend on the technology available now and in the future, the size and type of the organization, and the environmental factors that include the competition, government regulations, suppliers, and so on.
competitive advantage
a significant and (ideally) long-term benefit to a company over its competition.
Customer relationship management (CRM)
Help a company manage all aspects of customer encounters, including marketing and advertising, sales, customer service after the sale, and programs to retain loyal customers.
team organizational structure
a structure centered on work teams or groups
change model
A representation of change theories that identifies the phases of change and the best way to implement them
is learning new work methods, behaviors, and systems
organizational culture
The major understandings and assumptions for a business, corporation, or other organization
a set of major understanding and assumptions shared by a group
Giving employees and their managers more responsibility and authority to make decisions, take certain actions, and have more control over their jobs.
Downstream management
Managing finished product storage, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and customer service.
total cost of ownership (TCO)
The measurement of the total cost of owning computer equipment, including desktop computers, networks, and large computers.
Value chain
A series (chain) of activities that includes inbound logistics, warehouse and storage, production, finished product storage, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and customer service.
on-demand computing
contracting for computer resources to rapidly respond to an organization;s varying workflow. also called on-demand business and utility computing
technology diffusion
A measure of how widely technology is spread throughout the organization
technology infusion
The extent to which technology is deeply integrated into an area or department
The ability of a product (including services) to meet or exceed customer expectations.
involves reinforcing changes to make the new process second nature, accepted, and part of the job
organizational learning
the adaptations to new conditions or alterations or organizational practices over time
user satisfaction
with a computer system and the information it generates often depends on the quality of the system and the information
Supply chain management (SCM)
Helps determine what supplies are required for the value chain, what quantities are needed to meet customer demand, how the supplies should be processed (manufactured) into finished goods and services, and how the shipment of supplies and products to customers should be scheduled, monitored, and controlled.
resource-based view
Is an approach to acquiring and controlling assets or resources that can help the economy achieve a competitive advantage
A formal collection of people and other resources established to accomplish a set of goals
technology acceptance model (TAM)
a model that describes the factors that lead to higher levels of acceptance and usage of technology
sustaining change
Can help an organization improve the supply of raw materials, the production process, and the products and services it offers.
Is ceasing old habits and creating a climate receptive to change.
staff positions
Positions that are not directly involved with the formal chain of command but instead assist a department or area.
total quality management (TQM)
Involves developing a keen awareness of customer needs, adopting a strategic vision for quality, empowering employees, and rewarding employees and managers for producing high-quality products
Upstream management
Managing raw materials, inbound logistics, and warehouse and storage facilities.
organizational change
the responses that are necessary so that for-profit and nonprofit organizations can plan for, implement, and handle change.
reducing the number of employees to cut costs. also called rightsizing
information service unit
A miniature IS department
project organizational structure
a structure centered on major products or services.
five-forces model
A widely accepted model that identifies five key factors that can lead to attainment of competitive advantage, including 1. The rivalry among existing competitors, 2. The threat of new entrants, 3. The threat of substitute products and services, 4. The bargaining power of buyers, and 5. The bargaining power of suppliers
strategic alliance (strategic partnership)
An agreement between two or more companies that involves the joint production and distribution of goods and services.
virtural organizational structure
a structure that employes individuals, groups, or complete business units in geographically dispersed areas that can last for a few weeks or years, often requiring telecommunications or the internet.
return on investment (ROI)
One measure of IS value that investigates the additional profits or benefits that are generated as a percentage of the investment in IS technology
Involves contracting with outside professional services to meet specific business needs.
information center
A support function that provides users with assistance, training, application development, documentation, equipment selection and setup , standards, technical assistance, and troubleshooting
A measure of the output achieved divided by the input required.
flat organizational structure
An organizational structure with a reduced number of management layers.
line positions
The positions or departments that are directly associated with making, packing, or shipping goods.
traditional organizational structure
An organizational structure similar to a managerial pyramid, where the hierarchy of decision making and authority flows from strategic management at the top down to operational management and nonmanagement employees. Also called a hierarchical structure.
reengineering (process redesign) business process reengineering (BPR)
The radical redesign of business processes, organizational structures, information systems, and values of the organization to achieve a breakthrough in business results.
disruptive change
Often harms an organization's performance or even puts it out of business
organizational structure
Organizational subunits and the way they relate to the overall organization
Six sigma
A statistical term that means products and services will meet quality standards 99.9997% of the time. In a normal distribution curve used in statistics, six standard deviations (six sigma) is 99.9997% of the area under the curve.
a process for testing skills and knowledge, which results in a statement by the certifying authority that states an individual is capable of performing a particular kind of job.

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