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Architecture and Interoperability
Access Control List
Architecture Framework Data Model
Architecture Framework Working Group
air interface protocol
Represents a standard or proprietary implementation of a wireless signal protocol that provides the schema for radio-based communication links between the mobile radios and their active base stations.
Abbreviation for the eight BITs which identify the encryption algorithm in systems with multiple encryption algorithms.
Analog Communications
The process of communicating through a signal in which some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. Analog technology takes an audio or video signal and translates it into electronic pulses. Contrast wit
Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials International: member driven association of communications professionals that provides leadership; influences public safety communications decisions of government and industry; promotes professional de
Application Program Interface
structure of components, their relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time
Architecture Framework
defines what products the architect/designer must deliver and how those products must be constructed
Automatic Retry reQuest to retry corrupted data packets
Architecture Repository System
American Standard Code for Information Interchange: A seven-BIT code that defines 128 characters, including control characters, letters, numbers, and symbols.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Audio throughput delay
Waiting time delay from audio input at sending unit until audio output at receiving unit.
The difference between the limiting frequencies of a continuous frequency band. Typically measured in Kilohertz. May be considered the amount in kilohertz required for a single communications channel.
BCH code
Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem: binary error-correcting code; a multilevel, cyclic, error-correcting, variable-length digital code used to correct multiple random error patterns
BIT Error Rate: number of bits, incorrectly received to the total number of bits sent during a specified time interval
BER Threshold
level at which the BIT error rate exceeds the error correction capability and communication fails in a digital system
binary digit
BIT Rate
In a BIT stream, the number of BIT occurring per unit time, usually expressed as BITs per second or BPS
BIT Stuffing
method used for synchronizing BIT streams that do not necessarily have the same or related BIT rates, by adding non-information (stuffing) BITs
BITs per second
Compatible Four-level Frequency Modulation
Common Alerting Protocol: cellular-based emergency messaging.
Code Division Multiple Access: based on spread spectrum technology. Since it is suitable for encrypted transmissions, it has long been used for military purposes. CDMA increases spectrum capacity by allowing all users to occupy all channels at the sam
Characteristics of the Architecture Framework
discipline for examining processes and system alternatives in context with operations and the information required; common, pragmatic guidelines for describing architectures to enable comparisons and dovetailing; tailor-able and modifiable to suit require
Communications Medium
A means of data transmission
Commercial Off-the-shelf
A representation of individual facts, concepts, or instructions in a manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by humans or by automatic means.
Data Model
A representation of the data elements pertinent to an architecture, often including relationships among the elements and their attributes or characteristics.
The representation of a set of people, objects, places, events, or ideas that share the same characteristic relationships.
Database management system
Data flow diagram
Digital Communications
The process of communicating through digital technology, which breaks voice or video signal into binary codea series of 1s and 0s then transfers it to the other end where another device (radio, phone, modem, or video monitor) takes all the numbers and r
Extended Area Network
Emergency Alert System: successor of the Emergency Broadcast System.
Emergency Management
Emergency Medical Services
The process of encoding a message so that it can be read only by the sender and the intended receiver. Encryption systems often use two keys; a public key available to anyone, and a private key that allows only the receiver to decode the message.
Encryption - Compatible
A message encoding process that is readily recognized by systems participating in an interoperable connection, without the need for special modification or conversion.
Encryption - Incompatible
The disparity in the processes for encoding messages that make it impossible for systems to have an interoperable connection without special modification or conversion.
Encryption Algorithm
A mathematical procedure for encrypting data. Through the use of an algorithm, information is made into meaningless cipher text and requires the use of a key to transform the data back into its original form. Blowfish, AES RC4, RC5, and RC6 are examples o
Encryption Key
Specifies the particular transformation of plain voice (or text) into cipher voice (or text), or vice versa during decryption. Keys are also used in other cryptographic algorithms, such as digital signature schemes and message authentication codes.
Frequency Division Multiple Access: the most common analog system. It is a technique whereby spectrum is divided up into frequencies and then assigned to users. With FDMA, only one subscriber at any given time is assigned to a channel. The channel ther
Federal Information Processing Standard
Family of Systems
Federal Response Plan
Global Justice XML Data Model
Global System for Mobile communications: second generation digital technology originally developed for Europe but which now has in excess of 71 per cent of the world market. Initially developed for operation in the 900MHz band and subsequently modified fo
Graphical User Interface
Human-computer interface
Hypertext Markup Language
Input and Output
Incident Area Network
Incident Commander or Incident Command
Interface Control Document
Incident Command Post
Incident Command System
Incident Fire Commander
Incident Law Enforcement Commander
Improved Multi-Band Excitation: vocoder; heavily optimized for human speech; samples microphone input producing 88 bits of encoded speech every 20 milliseconds (4400 bps).
An occurrence or event, natural or human-caused, that requires an emergency response to protect life or property. Incident can, for example, include major disasters, emergencies, terrorist attacks, terrorist threats, wildland and urban fires, floods, haza
Incident Command Post
The field location at which the primary tactical-level, on-scene incident command functions are performed. The ICP may be collocated with the incident base or other incident facilities and is normally identified by a green rotating or flashing light.
Incident Command System
A standardized on-scene emergency management construct specifically designed to provide for the adoption of an integrated organizational structure that reflects the complexity and demands of single or multiple incidents, without being hindered by jurisdic
Incident Commander
The individual responsible for all incident activities, including the development of strategies and tactics and the ordering and the release of resources. The IC has overall authority and responsibility for conducting incident operations and is responsibl
Independent Systems
A communications system that serves some communications service requirements for a public safety agency but does not or cannot provide standardized interfaces to other agencies' communication systems.
Interoperability (Communications)
Communications interoperability is the ability of public safety agencies to talk across disciplines and jurisdictions via radio communications systems, exchanging voice and data with one another on demand, in real time, when needed.
Internet Protocol
Inter RF Subsystem Interface: support Land Mobile Radio (LMR) communication systems that are configured to include more than a single RF Subsystem (RFSS). The ISSI also provides an interface, using industry standard protocols, that allows interoperability
Information Technology
Institute for Telecommunication Sciences: Located in Boulder, CO, this is the research and engineering branch of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), a part of the Commerce.
Jurisdiction Area Network
A range or sphere of authority. Public agencies have jurisdiction at an incident related to their legal responsibilities and authority. Jurisdictional authority at an incident can be political or geographical (e.g., city, county, tribal, State, or Federal
Key Interface
Key Interface Profile
Local Area Network
Law Enforcement Commander
A representation of the physical realization of connectivity between systems nodes.
Land mobile radio: wireless communications device used in vehicles (mobiles) or on foot(portables)
Linear Predictive Coding
National Association of State Telecommunications Directors: member-driven organization whose purpose is to advance and promote the effective use of telecommunications technology and services to improve the operation of state government.
National Response Plan
A plan mandated by HSPD-5 that integrates Federal domestic prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery plans into one all-discipline, all-hazards plan.
National Communications System: office within the United States Department of Homeland Security charged with enabling national security and emergency preparedness communications (NS/EP telecommunications) using the national telecommunications system.
A requirement that is the logical expression of the need to transfer information among nodes.
The joining of two or more nodes for a specific purpose.
National Incident Management System
National Response Plan
NS/EP telecommunications
National Security or Emergency Preparedness telecommunications: used to maintain a state of readiness or to respond to and manage any event or crisis (local, national, or international) that causes or could cause injury or harm to the population, damage t
National Telecommunications and Information Administration: President's principal adviser on telecommunications and information policy issues.
Open Mobile Alliance Push-to-Talk Over Cellular
Over-The-Air Rekeying
Project 25: set of standards produced through the joint efforts of the Association of Public Safety Communications Officials International (APCO), the National Association of State Telecommunications Directors (NASTD), selected Federal Agencies and th
Personal Area Network
Personal Digital Assistant
Point of Contact
Project 16A
suite of operational requirements developed by APCO for Public Safety trunked radio systems. It is titled 900 MHz Trunked Communications System Functional Requirements Development, Dated March 1979.
Public Safety
Public Safety Architecture Framework
Research and Development
Radio Band
A section of the radio communication spectrum, where frequencies are usually used or set aside for the same purpose. Example radio bands are: VHF High, VHF Low, UHF, 700 MHz, 800 MHz..
A need or demand
Radio Frequency Subsystem
Signal Type
In the business rule diagrams, represents the signal class, which is either analog or digital.
System of Systems
Subscriber Unit
Subscriber Unit (SU)
A broadband radio that is used by public safety personnel to connect to an access point in order to send or receive high speed voice and data wired or wirelessly. Devices commonly referred to as a Subscriber Unit include hand-held radios, mobile phones, e
Any organized assembly of resources and procedures united and regulated by interaction or interdependence to accomplish a set of specific functions.
Talk Group
A prescribed set of voice traffic on a trunked mobile radio system. In trunked radio systems, radio units are programmed (identified) to virtual groups by the embedded radio system logic and frequency assignments are controlled by a computer and software.
Talkaround Mode
A mode of operation in which subscriber units communicate directly with one another over the air, bypassing the Land Mobile Radio system infrastructure. Public safety agencies may designate specific radio frequencies as Talkaround" Channels. Such channe
Transmission Control Protocol
Time Division Mission Access
Telecommunications Industry Association: leading trade association for the information, communications and enterntainment technology industry
Trunked Radio System
A radio system that maximizes capacity by giving users access to logical talk groups, rather than dedicated frequencies. This allows for more efficient utilization of limited frequencies for multiple communication needs. Trunking is used by many governme
Trunking Protocol
A propriety or standard communication schema that affiliates a trunked radio system with its subscriber units. It defines a relationship between the radios and the radio backbone that supports them. Examples of trunking protocols are: Motorola Privacy Pl
Unified Command
An application of ICS used when there is more than one agency with incident jurisdiction or when incidents cross political jurisdictions. Agencies work together through the designated members of the UC, often the senior person from agencies and/or discipl
listens to a sample of the audio input and only transmits certain characteristics that represent the sound; uses basic characteristics to produce a synthetic equivalent of the input sound.
Virtual Private Network
Wide Area Network
eXtensible Markup Language

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