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ACIS 1504 Exam I


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5 components of an information System

1. hardware

2. software

3. data

4. procedure

5. people 

Information is: 


Objective or subjective? 

Subjective; one man's data is another man's information.

What drives a business?

How does I.S. play a role? 

People; Info systems help these people accomplish the goals and objectives of the organizations they work for
Adware and Spyware

Software that gathers information about your online activities and sends it to someone else.

-Adware is designed to enhance the effectiveness of targeted advertising.

-Spyware is designed to support criminal activities. 

Are ethical and legal synonymous?

No; establish your own decision about what is ethical and what is not.

 Remember: misdirected information can be handled unethically by YOU. 

Augmentation information systems

those in which humans do the bulk of the work

ex: email; users look for support, not answers 

Automated information Systems: 

those in which the hardware and the program components do most of the work

 ex: inventory  

Characteristics of good information: Content
It must be accurate, complete, and concise.
Characteristics of good information: form
It must be clear, detailed, orderly, presented well, and through a good medium.
Characteristics of good information: time
It must be timely, it must be frequent, current, and it must be in the time period/coverage that is relevant to your needs.
Competitive Advantage: 8 principles used to create a competitive advantage

Create a new product or service

Enhance products or services

Differentiate products or service

Lock in customers and buyers

Lock in suppliers

Raise barriers to market entry

Establish alliances

Reduce costs 

Cost Leadership
Lower your costs, increase costs of competitors, help suppliers lower their costs, help customers lower their costs
Customer Relationship Management System
An Info System that maintains data about customers and all their interactions with the organization.
Data vs. Information
Data must be processed to become information. 
Decision Steps

1. Gather information

2. Alternative formulation (other choices?)

3. Choice

4. Implementation

5. Review 

Decisions: Levels

1. Operational (daily)

2. Managerial (allocation and utilization of resources)

3. Strategic (organizational issues) 

Denial of Service Attack
A program that controls infected machines and commands them to flood a network with traffic by making numerous unnecessary requests

Develop ways to distinguish your product or services from competitors

reduce differences established by competitors 

Encoding information so only those with the key can decode it
Executive Info Systems
Info systems that support strategic decision making
Software or hardware that creates a protective barrier between your computer and potentially harmful programs on the internet
occurs when a person gains unauthorized access to a computer system
Info Systems' categories

Operations Support Systems

Management Support systems 


Knowledge derived from data that is presented in a meaningful context; process or aggregated data; a difference that makes a difference

 Information is relevant data 

Information Literacy

1. Define what information is needed.

2. Know how and where to obtain data.

3. Understand the meaning of information

4. Act appropriately based on the information (legally and ethically) 

Information System
Group of componenets that interact to produce information
Information Technology
products, methods, inventions, and standards that are used for the purpose of producing information; drives the development of new info systems
Develop unique products or services, enter unique markets, find new ways of producing products or services, find new ways of distributing products or services, establish new business alliances
Internet and the Long Tail Theory

Internet allows businesses to tap into the Long Tail market

 Lowering search costs could create a longer tail by increasing sales of hard to find products 

Knowledge management System
An Info System for storing and retrieving organizational knowledge, whether that knowledge is in the form of data, documents, or employee know-how; its goal is to make the organization's knowledge available to employees, vendors, customers, investors,
Undesirable software on your computer
Management Info Systems
Info systems that support managerial decision making
Management Information Systems
The development and use of information systems that help businesses achieve their goals and objectives
Management Support Systems

1. Management Information Systems (Prespecified reporting for managers)

2. Decision Support Systems (interactive decision support)

3. Executive information systems (info tailored for executives)

Manufacturing info systems
Focuses on various aspects of the manufacturing process from quality control to planning to scheduling
Moore's Law
Gordon Moore of Intel's observation that "the number of transistors per square inch on an integrated chip doubles every 18 months"; has been proved accurate over the past 40 years
Operations Support Systems:

1. transaction processing systems (process business trasactions)

2. process control systems (control of industrial processes)

3. enterprise collaboration systems (team and workgroup collaboration)


Designed to harvest identity, financial, and other key pieces of information for identity theft.

Exploits vulnerability in DNS server software that allows hacker to redirect the domain name for a site to a different IP address. 

obtaining unauthorized data by pre-texting through email
someone deceives by pretending to be someone else

A perceived difference between what is and what ought to be. 

A good problem definition describes the current situation and the desired situation.  

Purposes of Information Systems

1. To gain a competitive advantage

 2. To Solve problems

3. to assist in decision making

4. to comply with a directive 

Likelihood of an adverse occurrence
any action, device, procedure, technique, or other measure that reduces a system's vulnerability to a threat
Security Program: 3 components

1. Senior management

2. Safeguards

3. Planned response to security incidents 

Security Threat Problem Types

1. Unauthorized data disclosure

2. Incorrect Data Modification

3. Faulty service 

intercepting computer communications
someone pretending to be someone else
Structured vs. unstructured decision

1. Structured: decision for which there is an understood and accepted method for making the decision

 2. Unstructured: decision for which there is no agreed-on decision making method 

Switching costs
organizations lock in customers by making it difficult or expensive for customers to switch to another product
Group of components that interact to achieve some purpose
the long tail theory

Chris Anderson of Wired's theory that states companies get less for those items they stock more of

ex: netflix makes a lot of money because they rent a lot of unpopular movies 

Transaction processing systems
Info systems that support operation decision making.
Trojan Horse
A program that seems to perform one good function while actually doing something else that is bad (video game download that has a hidden attachment)
Unknown factors that increase risk
Occurs when unauthorized programs invade a computer system and replace legitimate programs
Program instructions in a file that reproduces itself and spreads to other files on the same computer
an opening or weakness in the security system
What governs conduct for business professionals?

1. The Law

2. Corporate Policy

 3. Ethical behavior 

Malware that can spread itself to other computers with minimal user interaction

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