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information system


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What is an information system?
an rrangement of people =,data, process, and information technology thatinteract to collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to support an organization.
What are the four types of information systems?
1-- Transaction processing system = process business transactions such as orders , time cards, payments and reservation.
2-- Management information systems use the transaction data to produce information needed by managers to run the business.
3-- Decision support systems =help various decision makers identify and choose between options or decisions.
4-- Executive Information systems are tailored to the unique needs of executives who plan for the business and assess performance against those plans.
How is the term information system used in 2 ways?
First information system is used in terms of the field of study. That is as an interdisciplinary field influenced by computer science, political science, research, liguistics and others.

As a type of information system it is a broad class of information systems that provide information to aid organizational decision making. (I believe this is how we are using it in INFO 503.)
What is a system?
a set way of doing things
Who are the stakerholders in an information system environment?
1-- system owners
2. System users = the customer who will be affected by the info system o a regular basis.
3. System designers = a technical specialists who translates system users' business requirements and constraints into technical solutions. She or he designs the computer databases, inputs, outputs, screens, networkd, and software that will meet the system users' requirements
Who is a systems analyst?
A systems analyst is a specialist who studies the problems and needs of an organization to determine how people, data, processes, and IT can best accomplish inprovements for the business.

This is the person who looks to solve problems andcome up with ways to improve the business even when there are no problems that are being complained about at the time. (Think Joe Campanella.)
What is antoher piece to the role of the systemss analyst's job?
systems analyst's role intentionally overlaps the roles of other stake holder
For system owners and users, system analysts identify and validate business problems and needs.

For system designers and builders, systems analysts ensure that the technical solution fulfills the business needs and intergrate the tech solution in the business.
What is more info about the role of a system's analyst?
1. This person solves problems either real or anticipated that require corrective action
2. This person looks for opportinities to improve a situation regardless of the abscence of complaints.
3. Directives to change a situation regardless of whether anyone has complained about the current situation
What eight characteristics should a systems analyst have?
1 -- working knowledge of info technologies
2-- Computer programming experience and expertise.
3 -- General knowledge of business process and terminology
4-- general problem sovling skills (break large business problems down into its parts, determine cause and efffects
5 -- good interpersonal communication skills
6-- Good interpersonal relations skills Analyst should be able to be involved in group dynamics business politics, conflict and change.
7-- Flexibility and adaptability
8-- Character and ethics
What are the 10 Commandments of Computer Ethics
1. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people.
2. Thou shlat not interfere with other people's computer work
3. thou shalt not use a computer to steal
4. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness.
5. Thou shalt not use a computer in ways that insure consideration and respect for your fellow humans.
6. Thou shalt not appropriate other people's intellectual property.
What are business drivers?
Business drivers are trends that are impacting information systems
1. Globalization of the ecenomy
2. Electronic commerce and Electron business
3. Security and privacy
4. Collaboration and Partnership
Knowldege Asset Management

5. Continous Improvement and Total Quality Management
What are the technology drivers?
Networks and the Internet
Mobile and Wirless Technologies
Object Technologies
Colaborative technolgies
Enterprise Applicatins
What is Simply System Development Process?
System initiation
A. identifiy the problem. (Also plan a solution for the problem.

Systems analysis
B. Analyze and understand the problem.
C. Identify solution requirements and expectations.

System Design
E. Identify alternative solutions and choose the best course of action.
F. Design the chosen solution.

System Implemenation
G. Implement the solution.
H. Evaluate the results. (If the problem is not solved return to steps A&B as appropriate.)
What is a front-office information system?
These support business functions that reach out to customers or constitutents.
What is back office information system information system?
This one supports internal business operations as well as interacts with suppliers.
What is Information Systems Architecture?
IS architecture is a unifying framework into which various stakeholders with different perspective can organize and view the fundamental building blocks of information systems.
What is the perspective of the system owners and system users.
Three goals
1. The goal is to improve business knowledge. (Knowledge is a product of information and data.)
2 The goal to improve business processes and services.
3. To improve business communications and people collaboration.
What is perspective of system designers and system builders?
They tend to focus on database technologies that suppoet business accumulation and use of business knowledge.
2-- Software technologies that automate and support business processes and services.
3--Interface technologies that support thatsupport business communications and collaboration.
What is business processes?
Business processes are the work, procedures, and rules required to complete the business tasks, independent of any IT used to automate or support them.
What is business function?
Business function is a group of related processses that support the business.
What is data?
Data is raw facts (text, numbers, graphics)about people , places, events, and things that are of importance in an organization. (Remember each fact and probably all data for that matter, is relatively meaningless by itself.
What is information?
Information is data that has been processed or reorganized into more meaningful form so that it can be useful to someone.
What is knowledge?
Knowledge is data AND information that is further refined based on facts, truths, beliefs, judgements, experiences, and expertise of the receipient.(Ideally knowledge leads to wisdom.)
Whatis Business Process Redesign?
Business Process Redesign (BPR) the study, analysis, and redesign of fundamental business processes to reduce cost and/or improve value added to the business? (Prof would say equate BPR with downsizing.)
What is value added?
Value added is when a worker gives productive cost-effective information and knowledge to the business so that she or he is seen as almost indispensable to that business organization.
What are some specific Business Functions?
Specific business functions are :
A-- sales
B-- service
C-- manufacturing
D-- shipping
E-- receiving
f-- accounting

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