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Geography 3.6


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Pre-colonial cities of Africa
-ancient cities were mostly confined to Northern Africa (Cairo) Purpose and structure: center of religion and trade. Served as nodes. Lacked cultural distinction between rural and urban. No framework or planning.
Colonial Cities
-corresponding to European power between the 15th and the 20th century -“Gateways” along the coast (raw materials) -pre-existing cities were modified to incorporate European culture and serve their interests -new cities were built to access the African interior and centers of political control. Structure: European framework and planning. Distinct residential, commercial and industrial areas. Racial segregation. Europeans lived near the town center.
-most African nations gained independence in the 1960’s. Segregation was now based on socio-economic status instead of race. -purpose: they served as administrative, commercial and residential centers. -growth is influenced by global forces. Africans in the Diaspora are remitting money to enable development and expansion of cities. Multinational banks are offering loans to private developers. Desire to live like the people of developed countries.
Urban system
the collection of urban areas in a particular area. These urban areas are interlinked in a network through which people, money, and goods circulate.
Urban hierarchy
the structure of economic dependence and interdependence in an urban system.
Effects of Intensified Global Urbanization
-specialist urban centers have expanded their sphere of influence -Flexible accumulation requires concentration of information technology/workers -Demand for information technology has grown in metropolitan center Splintering urbanism- “intensifying social and economic inequalities within and among cities” -benefits of global/information economy are unevenly felt across the urban hierarchy -intense geographic differentiation/polarization within cities -new hierarchies in the urban system
World Cities
Increased control over production and transmission of news, information, and culture. Increasing social segregation/polarization (International elites, gentrification (neighborhood turn over), informal economies (under the table work), concentration of poverty.) High Number of recent immigrants Urban growth and management challenges
Primary World Cities
one of a select few cities in which a disproportionate amount of the world’s business is conducted (London, New York & Tokyo)
Secondary World Cities
A city that facilitate the transnational flows of business with one or more of the following: major governmental centers, concentration of major corporate HQs, stock exchanges, futures exchanges, major banks, international organizations, securities markets, commodity markets. (Ex=Houston, Miami, San Francisco& Washington DC)
Regional Control Centers
Large concentration of national and regional HQs of large corporations. Well-developed banking facilities Dense network of producer services Important educational, medical, and public-sector institutions (Cleveland, Cincinnati & Columbus)
Specialized-Producer Service Centers
Narrowly defined, specialized industries that aid business (Rochester-office machines; San Jose-semi-conductors) Dependent on world cities for banking and advertising Older manufacturing cities (Toledo, Detroit, Pittsburgh) Government/education centers (Albany, Austin, Lansing)
Dependent Centers
Economy subject to decisions made at regional, national or global control centers Traditional manufacturing centers, Industrial/Military Centers, Mining & Resort/Retirement
Splintering Urbanism and Types of Urban Settings
Enclaves of international banking or technology development, technopoles of industrial innovation, places developed by direct foreign investment, enclaves of back-office spaces and export processing zones.
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and socially acceptable to use. Can be: Depleted permanently, rendered less usable by pollution, or sustainably managed.
Peak Oil
the top of your production capacity. Bell Curve.
The US has __% of the World population yet consumes __% of World Energy.
Collective consumption
This concept was central to neo-Marxist urban social theories developed in the late 1960s and 1970s. Particular features of collective consumption, notably the state\'s role in its provision and the opportunities it appeared to offer for political mobilization of consumers, underlay the significance of the concept for these urban social theories.
Core-periphery theory
is based on the notion that as one region or state expands in economic prosperity, it must engulf regions nearby to ensure ongoing economic and political success. The area of high growth becomes known as the core, and the neighboring area is the periphery. Cores and peripheries may be towns, cities, states, or nations.
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
A measure of foreign ownership of productive assets, such as factories, mines and land. Increasing foreign investment can be used as one measure of growing economic globalization.
Gender empowerment measure (GEM)
a measure of inequalities between men\'s and women\'s opportunities in a country. It combines inequalities in three areas: political participation and decision making, economic participation and decision making, and power over economic resources. It is one of the five indicators used by the United Nations Development Programme in its annual Human Development Report Methodology
Gender-related Development Index (GDI)
an indication of the standard of living in a country, developed by the United Nations (UN). It is one of the five indicators used by the United Nations Development Programme in its annual Human Development Report. It aims to show the inequalities between men and women in the following areas: long and healthy life, knowledge, and a decent standard of living.

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