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Management of Information Systems Final

Terms

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Using the computer to sped up the performance of existing tasks.
Automation
the streamlining of standard operation procedures, eliminating obvious bottlenecks, so that automation makes operating procedures more efficient.
rationalization of procedures
the radical redesign of business processes, combining steps to cut waste and eliminating repetitive, paper-intensive tasks in order to improve cost, quality, and service, and to maximize the benefits of information technology.
business process reengineering (BPR)
radical reconceptualization of the nature of the business and the nature of the organization.
paradigm shift
the process of streamlining business procedures so that documents can be moved easily and efficiently from one location to another.
work flow management
methodology for revising the organization's business processes to use business processes as fundamental building blocks of corporate information systems.
business process management
a concept that makes quality control a responsibility to be shared by all people in an organization.
total quality management (TQM)
a specific measure of quality, representing 3.4 defeets per million opportunities; used to designate a set of methodologies and techniques for improving quality and reducing costs.
six sigma
setting strict standards for products,services, or activities and measuring organizational performance against those standards.
benchmarking
the activities that go into producing an information systems solution to an organizational problem or opportunity.
systems development
as part of the systems analysis process, the way to determine whether the solution is achievable, given the organization's resources and constraints.
feasibility study
specialists who translate business problems and requirements into information requirements and systems, acting as liaison between the information systems department and the rest of the organization.
systems analysis
a detailed statement of the information needs that a new systems must satisfy; identifies who needs what information, and when, where, and how the information is needed.
information requirements
details how a system will meet the information requirements as determined by the systems analysis.
systems design
the exhaustive and thorough process that determines whether the system produces the desired results under known conditions.
testing
provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting.
acceptance testing
the process of testing each program separately in the system. sometimes called program testing.
unit testing
prepared by the development team in conjunction with the users; it includes all of the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system.
test plan
the process of changing from the old system to the new system.
conversion
a safe and conservative conversion approach where both the old system is potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assured that the new one functions correctly.
parallel strategy
a risky conversion approach where the new system completely replaces the old one on an appointed day.
direct cutover
a strategy to introduces the new system to a limited area of the organization until it is proven to be fully functional; only then can the conversion to the new system across the entire organization take place.
pilot study
introduces the new system in stages either by functions or by organizational units.
phased approach
descriptions of how an information system works from either a technical or end-user standpoint.
documentation
the stage after the new system is installed and the conversion is complete; during this time the system is reviewed by users and technical specialists to determine how well it has met its original goals.
production
formal review process conducted after a system has been placed in production to determine how ell the system has met its original objectives.
postimplementation audit
changes in hardware, software, documentation, or procedures to a production system to correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiency.
maintenance
refers to the fact that the techniques are carefully drawn up, step by step, with each step building on a previous one.
structured
primary tool for structured analysis that graphically illustrates a system's component process and the flow of data between them.
data flow diagram (DFD)
describe the logic of the process occurring within the lowest levels of a data flow diagram.
process specifications
system documentation showing each level of design, the relationship among the levels, and the overall place in the design structure; can document one program, one system, or part of one program.
structure chart
approach to systems development that uses the object as the basic unit of systems analysis and design. the system is modeled as a collection of objects and the relationship between them.
object-oriented development
software building block that combines data and the procedures acting on the data.
object
automation of step-by-step methodologies for software and systems development to reduce the amounts of repetitive work the developer needs to do.
computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
a traditional methodology for developing an information system that partitions the systems development process into formal stages that must be completed sequentially with a vary formal division of labor between end users and information systems specialist
systems life cycle
the process of building an experimental system quickly and inexpensively for demonstration and evaluation so that users can better determine information requirements.
prototyping
the preliminary working version of an information system for demonstration and evaluation purposes.
prototype
a process of repeating over and over again the steps to build a system.
iterative
the part of an information system through which the end user interacts with the system, such as on-line screens and commands.
end-user interface
a programming language that can be employed directly by end users or less-skilled programmers to develop computer applications more rapidly than conventional programming languages.
forth-generation languages
software tool that provides immediate online answers to requests for information that are not predefined.
query languages
the modification of a software package to meet an organization's unique requirements without destroying the package software's integrity.
customization
a detailed list of questions submitted to vendors of software or other services to determine how well the vendor's product can meet the organization's specific requirements.
request for proposal (RFP)
outsourcing systems development work or maintenance of existing systems to external vendors in another country.
offshore outsourcing
process for developing systems in a very short time period by suing prototyping, forth-generation tools, and close teamwork among users and systems specialists.
rapid application development (RAD)
process to accelerate the generation of information requirements by having end users and information systems specialists work together in intensive interactive design sessions.
joint application design (JAD)
rapid delivery of working software by breaking a large project into a series of small sub-projects that are completed in short periods of time using iteration and continuous feedback.
agile development
building large software systems by combining pre-existing software components.
component-based development
planned series of related activities for achieving a specific business objective.
project
application of knowledge, tools, and techniques to achieve specific targets within a specified budget and time period.
project management
defines what work is and is not included in a project.
scope
a road map indicating the direction of systems development: the rationale, the current situation, the management strategy, the implementation plan, and the budget.
information systems plan
a small number of easily identifiable operational goals shaped by the industry, the firm, the manager, and the broader environment that are believed to assure the success of an organization. used to determine the information requirements of an organizatio
critical success factors (CSFs)
an analysis of the portfolio of potential applications within a firm to determine the risks and benefits, and to select among alternatives for information systems.
portfolio analysis
a quick method for deciding among alternative systems based on a system of rating for selected objectives.
scoring model
benefits that can be quantified and assigned a monetary value; they include lower operational costs and increases cash flows.
tangible benefits
benefits that are not easily quantified; they include more efficient customer service or enhanced decision making.
intangible benefits
the process of analyzing and selecting various proposals for capital expenditures.
capital budgeting
models for evaluating information technology investments with uncertain returns by using techniques for valuing financial options.
real options pricing models (ROPMs)
managing the impact of organizational change associated with an innovation, such as a new information system.
change management
Simon's final stage of decision-making; when the individual puts the decision into effect and reports on the progress of the solution.
implementation
in the context of implementation, the individual acting as the catalyst during the change process to ensure successful organizational adaptation to a new system or innovation.
change agent
the difference in backgrounds, interests, and priorities that impede communication and problem solving among end users and information systems specialists.
user-designer communications gap
project management technique that ensures that the implementation team operates as a cohesive unit.
internal integration tools
project management technique that structures and sequences tasks, budgeting time, money, and technical resources required to complete the tasks.
formal planning tools
project management technique that helps monitor the progress toward completion of a task and fulfillment of goals.
formal control tools
visually represents the timing, duration, and resources requirements of project tasks.
gantt chart
network diagram depicting project tasks and their interrelationships.
PERT charts
project management technique that links the work of the implementation team to that of users at all organizational levels.
external integration tools
a deliberate strategy to thwart te implementation of an information system or an innovation in an organization.
counterimplementation
the interaction of people and machines in the work environment, including the design of jobs, health issues, and the end-user interface of information systems.
ergonomics
study of the way a proposed system will affect organizational structure, attitudes, decision making, and operations.
organizational impact analysis
design to produce information systems that blend technical efficiency with sensitivity to organizational and human needs
sociotechnical design
the basic information systems required by organizations to coordinate worldwide trade and other activities.
international information systems architecture
a force in the environment to which businesses must respond and that influences the direction of business.
business driver
the development of common expectations, shared artifacts, and social norms among different cultures and peoples.
global culture
making judgments and taking action on the basis of narrow or personal characteristics, in all its forms (religious, nationalistic, ethnic, regionalism, geographical position).
particularism
the movement of information across international boundaries in any from.
transborder data flow
form of business organization characterized by heavy centralization of corporate activities in the home country of the origin.
domestic exporter
form of business organization that concentrates financial management and control out of a central home base while decentralizing production, sales, and marketing operations to units in other countries.
multinational
form of business organization in which a product is created, designed, financed, and initially produced in the home country, but for product-specific reasons relies heavily on foreign personnel for further production, marketing, and human resources.
franchisers
truly global form of business organization with no national headquarters; value added activities are managed from global perspective without reference to national borders, optimizing sources of supply and demand and local competitive advantage.
transnational
systems that support functions that are absolutely critical to the organization.
core systems
the extent to which one's authority is accepted on grounds of competence, vision, or other qualities. making judgments and taking actions on the basis of narrow or personal characteristics.
legitimacy
bringing the opposition into the process of designing and implementation a solution without giving up control of the direction and nature of the change.
cooptation
process of converting software to operate in a second language.
software localization
computerized systems that perform and record the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct the business; they serve the organization's operational level.
transaction processing systems (TPS)
the study of information systems focusing on their use in business and management.
management of information systems (MIS)
information systems at the organization's strategic level designed to address unstructured decision making through advanced graphics and communications.
Executive support systems (ESS)
integrated enterprise-wide information systems that coordinate key internal processes of the firm.
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) or enterprise systems
information systems at the organization's management level that combine data and sophisticated analytical models or data analysis tools to support semistructured and unstructured decision making.
decision-support systems (DSS)
information systems that track all the ways in which a company interacts with its customers and analyze these interaction to optimize revenue, profitability, customer satisfaction, and customer retention.
customer relationship management (CRM) systems
an interactive computer-based system to facilitate the solution to unstructured problems by a set of decision makers working together as a group.
group decision-support systems (GDSS)
system with software that can analyze and display data using digitized maps to enhance planning and decision-making.
geographic information systems (GIS)
the process of buying and selling goods and services electronically involving transaction using the internet, networks, and other digital technologies.
electronic commerce, or e-commerce
a marketplace that is created by computer and communication technologies that link many buyers and sellers.
digital market

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