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MIS 250/350 ch14 vocab


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Provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting.
Acceptance Testing
Using the computer to speed up the performance of existing tasks.
Setting strict standards for products, services, or activities and measuring organizational performance against those standards.
The radical redesign of business processes, combining steps to cut waste and eliminating repetitive, paper-intensive tasks in order to improve cost, quality, and service, and to maximize the benefits of information technology.
Business Process Reengineering
Building large software systems by combining pre-existing software components.
Component-based Development
Automation of step-by-step methodologies for software and systems development to reduce the amounts of repetitive work the developer needs to do.
Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE)
The process of changing from the old system to the new system.
A small number of easily identifiable operational goals shaped by the industry, the firm, the manager, and the broader environment that are believed to assure the success of an organization. Used to determine the information requirements of an organizati
Critical Success Factors (CSFs)
The modification of a software package to meet an organization's unique requirements without destroying the package software's integrity.
Primary tool for structured analysis that graphically illustrates a system's component process and the flow of data between them.
Data Flow Diagram (DFD)
A risky conversion approach where the new system completely replaces the old one on an appointed day.
Direct Cutover
Descriptions of how an information system works from either a technical or end-user standpoint.
The development of information systems by end users with little or no formal assistance from technical specialists.
End-User Development
The part of an information system through which the end user interacts with the system, such as on-line screens and commands.
End-user Interface
An analysis of organization-wide information requirements by looking at the entire organization in terms of organizational units, functions, processes, and data elements; helps identify the key entities and attributes in the organization's data.
Enterprise Analysis
As part of the systems analysis process, the way to determine whether the solution is achievable, given the organization's resources and constraints.
Feasibility Study
A programming language that can be employed directly by end users or less-skilled programmers to develop computer applications more rapidly than conventional programming languages.
Fourth-Generation Language
A detailed statement of the information needs that a new system must satisfy; identifies who needs what information, and when, where, and how the information is needed.
Information Requirements
A road map indicating the direction of systems development: the rationale, the current situation, the management strategy, the implementation plan, and the budget.
Information Systems Plan
A process of repeating over and over again the steps to build a system.
Process to accelerate the generation of information requirements by having end users and information systems specialists work together in intensive interactive design sessions.
Joint Application Design (JAD)
Changes in hardware, software, documentation, or procedures to a production system to correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiency.
Software building block that combines data and the procedures acting on the data.
Approach to systems development that uses the object as the basic unit of systems analysis and design. The system is modeled as a collection o objects and the relationship between them.
Object-Oriented Development
Radical reconceptualization of the nature of the business and the nature of the organization.
Paradigm Shift
A safe and conservative conversion approach where both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assured that the new one functions correctly.
Parallel Strategy
Introduces the new system in stages either by functions or by organizational units.
Phased Approach
A strategy to introduce the new system to a limited area of the organization until it is proven to be fully functional; only then can the conversion to the new system across the entire organization take place.
Pilot Study
Formal review process conducted after a system has been placed in production to determine how well the system has met its original objectives.
Post-Implementation Audit
Describe the logic of the processes occurring within the lowest levels of a data flow diagram.
Process Specifications
The stage after the new system is installed and the conversion is complete; during this time the system is reviewed by users and technical specialists to determine how well it has met its original goals.
The process of translating the system specifications prepared during the design stage into program code.
The preliminary working version of an information system for demonstration and evaluation purposes.
The process of building an experimental system quickly and inexpensively for demonstration and evaluation so that users can better determine information requirements.
Software tool that provides immediate online answers to requests for information that are not predefined.
Query Language
Process for developing systems in a very short time period by using prototyping, fourth-generation tools, and close teamwork among users and systems specialists.
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
The streamlining of standard operating procedures, eliminating obvious bottlenecks, so that automation makes operating procedures more efficient.
Rationalization of Procedures
A detailed list of questions submitted to vendors of software or other services to determine how well the vendor's product can meet the organization's specific requirements.
Request for Proposal (RFP)
A specific measure of quality, representing 3.4 defects per million opportunities; used to designate a set of methodologies and techniques for improving quality and reducing costs.
Six Sigma
System documentation showing each level of design, the relationship among the levels, and the overall place in the design structure; can document one program, one system, or part of one program.
Structure Chart
Refers to the fact that techniques are carefully drawn up, step by step, with each step building on a previous one.
The analysis of a problem that the organization will try to solve with an information system.
Systems Analysis
Details how a system will meet the information requirements as determined by the systems analysis.
Systems Design
The activities that go into producing an information systems solution to an organizational problem or opportunity.
Systems Development
A traditional methodology for developing an information system that partitions the systems development process into formal stages that must be completed sequentially with a very formal division of labor between end users and information systems specialis
Systems Lifecycle
Tests the functioning of the information system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function together as planned.
System Testing
Prepared by the development team in conjunction with the users; it includes all of the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system.
Test Plan
The exhaustive and thorough process that determines whether the system produces the desired results under known conditions.
A concept that makes quality control a responsibility to be shared by all people in an organization.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Industry standard methodology for analysis and design of an object-oriented software system.
Unified Modeling Language (UML)
The process of testing each program separately in the system. Sometimes called program testing.
Unit Testing
The process of streamlining business procedures so that documents can be moved easily and efficiently from one location to another.
Work-Flow Management

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