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Biology Chapter 13

Terms

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single nucleotide polymorphism
unique spots where individuals differ by a single nucleotide
genetic engineering
a technology in which the genome of a living cell is modified for medical or industrial use
restriction enzyme
an enzyme that destroys foreign DNA molecules by cutting them at specific sites
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
a technique that is used to make many copies of selected segments of DNA (abbreviation, PCR)
DNA fingerprint
the pattern of bands that results when an individual's DNA sample is fragmented, replicated, and separated
clone
an organism that is produced by asexual reproduction and that is genetically identical to its parent; to make a genetic duplicate
DNA vaccine
a vaccine made from the DNA of a pathogen but does not have disease-causing capability
bioethics
the study of ethical issues related to DNA technology
vector
in biology, any agent, such as a plasmid or a virus, that can incorporate foreign DNA and transfer that DNA from one organism to another; an intermediate host that transfers a pathogen or a parasite to another organism
proteome
an organism's complete set of proteins
length polymorphism
variations in the length of the DNA molecule between known genes
primer
a short, single-stranded fragment of DNA or RNA that is required for the initiation of DNA replication
variable number tandem reports (VNTR)
a repeating nucleotide sequence one behind another
recombinant DNA
DNA molecules that are artificially created by combining DNA from different sources
gel electrophoresis
a technique used to separate nucleic acids or proteins according to size and charge in an agarose or acrylamide gel
Human Genome Project
a research effort to sequence and locate the entire collection of genes in human cells
probe
a strand of RNA or single-stranded DNA that has been labeled with a radioactive element or fluorescent dye and that is used to bind with and identify a specific gene in genetic engineering
cloning by nuclear transfer
the introduction of a nucleus from a body cell into an egg cell to generate an organism identical to the nucleus donor
proteomics
the study of all an organisms proteins including their identities, structures, interactions, and abundances
plasmid
a circular DNA molecule that is usually found in bacteria and that can replicate independent of the main chromosome
gene therapy
a technique that places a gene into a cell to correct a hereditary disease or to improve the genome
two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
a method that seperates the proteins in a sample into individual spots
bioinformatics
combines biological science, computer science, and information technology to enable the discovery of new biological insights and unifying principles
telomere
repeated DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes that shorten with each round of cell division

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