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Dev. Psyc. Ch. 3, 4, and 5


undefined, object
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the moment at which the sperm penetrates the ovum and the ovum becomes impervious to the entry of other sperm
fallopian tubes
the pair of slender ducts leading from the uterus to the region of the ovaries in the female reproductive system
a pathological condition in which bits of the endometrial lining of the uterus invade the body cavity and periodically bleed during a woman's monthly cycle. The disorder is found more often in women over 30 and may interfere with fertility by producing scar tissue that can damage or block the fallopian tubes
the fertilized ovum that results from the union of a sperm and egg
a stage of development during the period of the ovum when the embryo consists of one or several layers of cells around a central cavity, forming a hollow sphere
the outer layer of cells by which the fertilized ovum is attached to the uterine wall and through which the embryo receives its nourishment
period of the ovum
time from conception until the zygote is first attached within the uterus, about 2 weeks following conception
period of the embryo
time from the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall until the first formation of solid bone in the embryo, from about 2 to 8 weeks following conception
umbilical cord
the flexible, cordlike structure connecting the fetus at the navel with the placenta. This cord contains the blood vessels that nourish the fetus and remove its wastes
a vascular, membranous organ that develops during pregnancy, lining the uterine wall and partially enveloping the fetus. The placenta is attached to the fetus by the umbilical cord.
the unborn child from the eighth week of conception to the time of live birth
period of the fetus
time from the first formation of bone in the embryo until birth, generally from 8 weeks following conception until birth
any substance capable of producing fetal abnormalities, such as alcohol or tobacco
fetal alcohol syndrome
a disorder suffered by some infants whose mothers have ingested alcohol during the prenatal period. It is characterized by facial, limb or organ defects and reduced physical size and intellectual ability
a disease of humans, dogs, cats, and certain other mammals, caused by a parasitic microorganism that affects the nervous system. The disorder is especially damaging to an embryo or fetus
a viral infection, commonly known as German measles, that has a serious effect on an unborn child, especially if contracted by the mother during the first trimester
a common virus to which a majority of American women have been exposed at some time in their lives. An active infection in a pregnant mother may cause harm to the unborn child
a disease caused by a number of viruses that can attack the skin or mucous membranes. Genital herpes is difficult to treat and can harm an infant who is born to a mother whose herpes is in an active stage
cesarean section
a surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus, performed to extract a fetus
slow virus
a virus that may take years to produce symptoms. Slow viruses have been implicated in some forms of mental retardation
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; a human retrovirus type HIV, which is transmitted sexually through the exchange of bodily fluids or by shared needle use among infected IV (intravenous) drug abusers. The disease may also be passed by infusion of unscreened blood or blood products. Once the disease process occurs, the immune system fails and death follows. The virus may infect an unborn child by crossing the placental barrier of an infected mother
the passage of a child from the uterus to outside the mother's body
the rotation of the fetus into a head-downward position prior to birth
the physical efforts of childbirth; parturition
proteins produced by living organisms that act as catalysts, causing actions to occur. Commonly, enzymes act to break chemical bonds
birthing bar
a horizontal bar, often placed across the birthing bed, which is used to help a woman in labor take a squatting position to facilitate delivery
hormones that can affect the sympathetic nervous system; they are secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands
breech birth
a vaginal delivery during which the buttocks or feet of the fetus appear first
shoulder presentation
during birth, the presentation of the shoulder first, rather than the heard
a pathological deficiency in oxygen
having multiple offspring sired by more than one father
premature infant
an infant who weighs less than 5.5 pounds at birth and who was carried less than 37 weeks
a newborn infant
any unlearned response that occurs in all healthy members of a given species in the presence of an eliciting stimulus. Examples include blinking and coughing
a genetically programmed biological plan of development that is somewhat independent of experience. Highly correlated with, and dependent on, the growth and development of the nervous system
probablistic epigenesis
literally, the direction in which growth will probably go. The term is often used when discussing physical or cognitive development; it represents what typically occurs in the development of most individuals, but not in the development of all individuals
saltatory growth
literally, growth by leaping. Growth that occurs in "spurts" or sudden leaps
biodynamic theory of motor development
the view that motor development does not stem from the unfolding of "prewind" maturational programs, but rather from active exploration by the infant within the constraints and boundaries of his or her biological limitations and the demands of the environment
actions that are easy to make in light of the demands of the environment and an individual's biodynamics
phase shift
the sudden or abrupt change of motor actions from one attractor to another
experience-expectant system
a neural model of the central nervous system that pictures the CNS as containing structures that are prepared, or "prewired" to rapidly respond to, or make sense of, experiences that are common to all members of the species. The portion of the CNS that is not experience-dependent
Experience-Dependent System
A neural model of the central nervous system that pictures the CNS as containing structures that are flexible and prepared to incorporate information that is unique to each individual member of a species. The portion of the CNS that is not experience-expectant.
Behavioral Genetics
The interdisciplinary science the focuses on the interaction of nature and nurture- that is, on the interaction of what is inherited and what is acquired- and how that interaction affects development.
EEG (Electroencephalogram)
A recording of the changes in the brain’s electrical potentials. The recording is made by attaching electrodes to various positions to the scalp and amplifying the electrical output coming from the brain. EEG analysis can show a number of systematic changes within the brain that occur during various activities.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
All nerves encased in bone, including the brain and spinal cord.
Myelin Sheath
A white fatty covering on neural fibers that serves to channel and increase the transmission speed of impulses along those fibers
The long process of a neuron that transmits impulses away from the cell body.
Flexibility or adaptability. In neurophysiology, the ability of brain tissue to take over the functions of other brain tissue that has been damaged. In life experience, the ability to overcome the effects of early adverse experiences.
The junction at which a nerve impulse travels from one neuron to another.
Single-Stimulus Procedure
A methodological procedure for measuring an infant’s sensation and perception. An infant’s current state is noted (condition A). Then a single stimulus is presented to the infant (condition B) and any measurable changes in the infant’ behavior are noted. The procedure can be made experimental by creating a single-subject A-B-A design. This is accomplished by withdrawing the stimulus (return of conditions A) and again noting changes in the infant’s behavior
Preference Method
A methodological procedure for measuring an infant’s sensation and perception. Two stimuli are presented to infant simultaneously. Any preference the infant shows for one stimulus rather than the other is taken as a sign that the infant is able to discriminate between the tow stimuli. The investigator must control for such factors as right or left hand or near or far preferences
Habituation Method
A methodological procedure for measuring an infant’s sensation and perception. A stimulus is presented to the infant until habituation occurs. A second stimulus is then presented. Any increased response from that the infant is taken as a sign that the infant can discriminate between the stimuli
Optokinetic Nystagmus
Involuntary lateral motion of the eyes in response to the transverse passage of a series of vertical lines
Visual Saccade
The uneven and halting motions of the eyes as they track across edges and differencing contrasts, as occurs when a person reads printed words on a page.
Nasofacial Reflex
A facial expression that is a reflexive response to an olfactory stimulation not processed by the cerebral cortex
The result of converting physical stimulation of the sense organs into sensory experience
The ordering principle that gives coherence and unity to sensory input. Although sensory content is always present in perception, what is perceived is influenced by set and prior experience; thus, perception is more than a passive registration of stimuli impinging on the sense organs.
Size Constancy
The learned perception that an object remains the same size, even though the size of the image it coasts on the retina varies with its distance from the viewer
Shape Constancy
The learned perception that an object remains the same shape, despite the fact that the shape, despite the fact that the shape of the image it casts on the retina may vary depending on the viewing angle
Position Constancy
The learned perception that even thought the subject moves, all the objects in the environment stay stationary and maintain their positions relative to each other
Visual Cliff
An apparatus constructed to study depth perception in humans and other animals. It consists of a center board resting on a glass table. On one side of the board, a checkered surface is visible directly beneath the glass; on the other side, the surface is several feet below the glass, thus giving the impression of a drop-off
Biological Motion Perception
An ability that humans to make perceptual sense easily and quickly of live objects in motions
Cross-Modal Transfer
A recognition of an object as familiar when it is perceived with a sense other than that previously used when exposed to the object
Gentle stroke along sole of foot from heel to toe; toes fan out, big toe flexes, disappears by end of first year
pressure applied to both palms while baby is lying on its back; eyes close and mouth opens; head returns to center position; disappears in 3-4 months
flash of light or puff of air delievered to eyes; both eyelids close; permanent
sudden splash of cold water in the face; heart rate decelerates, blood flows mostly to brain and heart; becomes progressively weaker with age
knee jerk
tap on patellar tendon; Rapid extension of the leg at the knee; permanent
sudden loss of support; arms extend, then are brought toward each other; lower extremites are extended; disappears in about 6 months
palmar grasp
rod or finger pressed against infant's palm; baby grasps object; disappears in 3-4 months
both hands placed on side of alert infant's head and its movement restrained; infant's mouth blocked with cheesecloth or covered for 10 seconds; baby cries and struggles; disappears in 3-4 months
object lightly brushes infant's cheek; baby turns toward object and attempts to suck; disappears in 3-4 months
finger or nipple inserted 2 inches into mouth; rhythmic sucking; disappears in 3-4 months
baby is held upright and soles of feets are placed on hard surface; baby is tipped slightly forward; infant steps forward as if walking; disappears in 3-4 months

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