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a and p ch 8


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what do they do?
joints; bind parts of the skeletal system, make possible bone growth
how are joints classified?
immoveable/synarthrotic joints/ fibrous? ex
these are in close contact with one another and are held in place by though fibrous connective tissue; sutures of the skull
slightly moveable or amphiarthrotic joints cartilaginous? ex
these area connected by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage; ribs to sternum, int. disc, symphysis pubis
freely moveable or diarthrotic or synovial joints? ex
these have the widest range of motion and are more complex that nthe others; knee, hip, and fingers
what are joints?
junctions between bones of the skeletal system, where bones meet, a joint or articulation forms
general structure of a synovial joint pt. 1 and 2
the ends of the bones in these joints are covered with articular cartilage. This is resistant to wear and tear and also reduces friction between the bones.; The bones are held together by a tubular joint capsule.
pt. 3
Ligaments re-enforce the joint capsule and help bind the articular bones together.
pt 4
the inner lining of the joint capsule is made of loose connective tissue called the synovial membrane. This covers all surfaces w/i the joint capsule except the articular cartilage. This membrane has 4 funcions:
The membrane's 4 funcions:
It secretes synovial fluid which lubricates and reduces friction. It stores fat THat forms fatty pads w/i the joints. It reabsorbs fluid. It supplies nutrients to the cartilage.
pt 5
some synovial joints have fibrocartialge discs b/w the articular surfaces. These are called menisci. They help cushion the articulating surfaces and also, help distribute weight across the surfaces.
pt. 6
some freely moveable joints also have fluid-filled saxs called bursae. They help tendons glide easily over bony parts. (bursitis)
what is the fibrocartilage discs between the articular surfaces?
what are the six types of freely moveable joints?
b/s; condyloid; gliding; hinge; pivot; saddle
b and s joint? ex
allows for the widest range of motions, abduction, adduction, rotation, circumduction, flextion and extention; hip and shoulder
condyloid? ex
variety of movements in diff. planes, no rotation; b/w metacarpals and phalanges
gliding? ex
sliding or twisting; wrist
hinge? ex
allows movement in one plane only, flextion and extension; elbow and kneee
pivot? ex
rotation; head on atlas, radius and ulna at proximal end
saddle? ex
variety of movements, mainly in two planes; carpal and metacarpal of thumb
type of joint, articulation points, and rom of shoulder joint
b and s; head of the humerus w the glenoid cavity of the scapula; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation and circumduction
type of joint, articulation points, and rom of elbow
hinge; trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna; flextion and extention
type of joint, articulation points, and rom of hip
b and s; head of the femur and the acetabulum of the coxal bone; felx, exten, ab, add, rota, and circum
type of joint, articulation points, and rom of knee
hinge; medial and lateral condyles of the femur w the medial and lateral condyles of the tibia, there isa lso articualtion w the patella; flex, and exten
what is the largest and most complex joint of the human body?
displacement of the articulating bones of a joint
the result of overstretching or tearing connective tissue, ligaments and or tendons associated w a joint
bursitis? ex
inflammation of bursa caused by overuse of misuse of a joint (tennis elbow, trigger finger)
dixease that causes painful, inflammed and swollen joints
what are the two types of arthritis?
rheumatoid and osteoarthritis
more painful, crippling and is not associated w age
more common, degenerative disease, most likely to affext joints most used. other factors: injury, obesity or metabolic disorders
benign joint hypermobility syndrome?
range of morion much greater then normal
the gross anatomy of a synovial joint?
ligaments and joint capsule, menisci, bersae, syn. membrane, syn. fluid
ligaments and j. capsule?
dense and tough, poor healer
distribute weight across articulating surface
flid filled pouches-allows muscles and tendons to move easily across bony projections
sunovial membrane?
covers everything except articular cartilage. secretes and absorbs
synovial fluid?
to lubricate, also stored fat deposits to make protective pads (adipose) and supplies nutrients to joint
between flat bones of skull, where the broad margins of adjacent bones grow together and unite by a thin layer of dense connective tissue (fontanels)
inablity to metabolize certain proteins, extreme pain and swelling of a large joint
lyme arthritis?
bacterial infection passed in a tick bite
abmormal stiffness of a joint or fusion of bones at a joint, often due to damage of the joint membranes from chronic rheumatoid arthritis
dislocation of a joint
moveable end of muscle
immovable end of muscle
what does indertion and origin make together?
flextion? ex
bending parts at a joint so that the angle between them decreases and the parts come closer together; bicep curls and bending lower limb at knee
extention? ex
straightening parts at a joint so that the angle between them increases and the parts move farher apart; sraightening the lower limb at the knee and
hyperextension? ex
excess ectension of the parts at a joint, beyound the anatomical postion; bending the head back beyond the upright position to look up
dorsiflextion? ex
bending the foot at the ankle toward ths shin; bengin the foot upward like to play piano
plantar flextion? ex
bending the foot at the ankle toward the sole; bending the foot downward like a ballerina
abduction? ex
moving a part away from the midline; lifting the upper limb horizontally to form a right angle w the side of the body and leg lift
adduction? ex
moving a part toward the midline; returning the upper limb from the horizontal postion to the side of the body
rotation? ex
moving a part around an axis; twisting head from side to side
moving a part so that its end follows a circular path; moving the finger in a circ. motion without moving the hand
supination? ex
turning the hand so the palm is upward or facing anteriorly; in anatomical postion
pronation? ex
turning the hand so the palm is down or facing prosteriorly; in ana. postion
eversion? ex
turning the foot so the sole faces laterally; walking on big toe of shoe
inversion? ex
turning the foot so the sole faces medially; walking on little toe side of shoe
protraction? ex
moving a part forward; thrusting chin forward
retraction? ex
moving a part backward; pulling chin backward
elevation? es
raising a part; shrugging shoulders
depression? ex
lowering a part; drooping shoulders

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