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Chapter 9 2


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Arterial blood carries O2 blood to body cells.
Gas Transport - Oxygen
Space between other two membranes contains pleura fluid.
Pleura Cavity
Exchange of O2 and CO2 at the aveoli and capillaries of the lungs. Aveolar Gas Exchange.
External Respiration
Nose - Pharynx
Upper Respiratory Tract
90% reacts with H2O to firm carbonic acid.
Carbon Dioxide
Branched from base of trachea and enter hilum, contain C shaped cartilage.
Two 1% Bronchi
Blueness of skin.
Warms, filters air, removes debris (dust, bacteria), moistens entering air.
Air Conditioner
Speaking, emotions, yawn, hiccup, sxpelling nixious fumes, coughing, sneezing.
Non-Respirator Air Movements
Divided 2% bronchi, 10 in right and 8 in left, overlapping cartilage plates.
3% (segmental) Bronchi
Infection of the larynx usually accompanied by inability to speak. Early warning sign of cancer in smokers.
Nasal cavity, Pharynx, larynx, bronchus, bronchioles, alveoli.
Passages for Airflow
Bacterial infection of the middle ear whick in connected to the pharynx by the eustacean tubes.
Otitis Media
Larynx and trachea are lined with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium. Cilia beat continuously upward - Mucous traps debris and cilia push it toward the throat for swallowing - HCI in stomach kills it - Cilia found through the tract as far as respirator
Mucociliary Escalator
O2 excess.
Oxygen toxicity
Larnyx - Alveoli
Lower Respiratory Tract
Infection of cranial sinus cavity mucous membranes causing congestion, pain, discharge. Treated with Decongestants.
WBC wander the lumen & CT, rid the lungs of debris, phagocytize bacteria and loose blood cells if lungs injured.
Aveolar Macrophages
Aveolar walls break down and lungs lose respiratory membrane surface. "Blue bloaters"
O2 into blood to body cells & Co2 into alveoli for removal with expiration.
Gas Exchange
Low tissue - usually cause kidneys to release erthropoitin, polycythemia.
Serous membrane covering lung surface.
Visceral Pleura
Any disorder in which there is long term obstruction of the airflow and reduction of pulmonary ventilation, except asthma.
Two nasal cavities divided by nasal septum, lined with epithileum.
Internal Nose
Located in the Medulla oblongota which receives signals - automatically stimulate muscels of inspiration for depth and rate.
Respiratory Center
Tiny ducts of simple squamous that end in Aveolar sacs.
Aveolar ducts
Take deep breath, hold it, contract abdominal muscles to sxpel feces, child, etc.
Valsalva Maneuver
Air is used in the speech process.
Accounts for more deaths than any other cancer. Cigarette smoke, usually follows or accompanies COPD.
Lung Cancer
Muscles operate vocal cords. 2 Pair of mucoso folds & elastic ligaments that stretch across glottis and vibrate when air passes between them.
Produces Sound - Functions of Larynx
From TB virus dispersed in spittle with a sneeze, or via blood or air.
Functions as air conditioner to warm, clean, humidify air. Detects ordors & resonates voice.
Low blood O2 - inadequate pulmonary exchange.
Hypoxemia Hypoxia
Smooth muscle, cilia ends in first part of these, lead to Aveolar ducts.
Respiratory Bronchioles
Distensibility of lungs. Fibrosis, COPD.
Pulmonary Compliance
Protrudes outward, framework of bone (superior) and cartilage (inferior half).
External Nose
Due to irritants, cold air, PSNS, histamine, shock, excess mucous, asthma, etc.
Bronchiole Diameter
Throat - common passage for food and air, connects nasal & oral cavities to larynx 13 cm (5 in) muscular tunnel from nasal cavity to larynx.
Inflammation of the tonsils in the pharynx.
"Sense of Smell", sensory cells in roof of nose detect odor of molecules dissolved in mucos.
Loading carbon dioxide and unloading oxygen - Opposite of process in lungs.
Internal Respiration
Semi-Permanent surgical opening (patient breaths through this openeing).
Inflammation and hyperpolasia (growth) bronchial mucosa = "pink puffers"
Chronic Bronchitis
In case of blockage, incision of tube into trachea on central surface of neck through which patient can breath or be ventilated.
Allergen triggers histamine and inflammatory chemicals that cause internal bronchoconstriction and sometimes suffocation.
Microscopic balloon-shaped structures that cluster in grape-like sacs, one cell thick to allow gas exchange with pulmonary capillaries. 150 million.lung=70m * 2 of surface area if stretch out flat.
Exchange of O2 and Co2 at the body cell capillaries.
Internal Respirations
First branch from 1% bronchi inside of lungs, 2 in left, 3 in right.
Two 2% (lobar) bronchi
Amount of air above TV that can be forcibly exhaled. 1400ml.
Expiratory Reserve Volume
Tongue and lips form words, loudness due to force of air through passages change tensions (open & close glottis) to change pitch of sound - Cords are longer and thicker in men due to testosterone.
Complete process of supplying O2 to body cells and removing waste Co2 from body.
Tears and paranasal sinuses lined with mucous drain into nasal cavity - why nose runs with crying.
Passive process, like elastic recoil, diaphragm relaxes and returns them to original dimensions.
Spongy parenchyma containing air sacs. Conical structures, appear solid with base resting on diaphragm, apex is blunt peak, either side of heart, protected by rib cage.
Maximum air lungs can contain RV + VC.
Total Lung Capacity
Between soft palate & hyoid, contains palatine & lingual tonsils, stratified squamous. Oral cavities opens here, passageway for food & air that meets nasopharynx.
Collapsed lung, lose pressure, can't inhale. Also caused by airway blockage.
Voice box - 4cm cartilagenous chamber with muscular walls. Triangular, with apex crating "Adam's apple" on front of neck (prominent in men).
Volumes & capacities ae dependent on body size. Some values change with age, sex, disease.
Measurements of Ventilations
Irregular spaces at end of ducts that lead to Aveoli.
Aveoli Sacs
Normal amount of air moved in & out of lungs in one quiet breath. 500ml.
Total Volume
Highly branched system of air tubes - cartilage holds tubes open. Two primary (1%) bronchi branch to 65K terminal bronchioles (resembles inverted free w/o leaves).
Bronchiole Tree
Stiffening of the lungs.
This layer below mucous membrane contains blood vessels that warm the air,
Mucous traps debis and basteria using lysozymes, Ige, and lymphocytes. Cilia beat back from nares and up from lungs to move debris aided by swallowing and coughing cold air -
Lamina Propria
Amount of Air above TV that can be forcibly inhaled. 2900 ml.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Premature babies & some newborns lack surfacant or have it in very small quantities - lungs collapse.
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Active process requires muscle contration of diaphragm and intercosatals. Thoracic atmostphere pressure 760mm Hg.
Windpipe - 12 cm rigid tube - 1 inch in diameter, anterior to the esophagus - Contains 16-20 C-shaped hyaline cartilage on ventral side - ("C" faces toward the back). Dorsal side is soft & flexible and attached to esophagus - permits food t
In lungs after maximum exhale, dead space, unusable air.
Residual Volume
Superior to soft palate, passageway for air only, Pseudostratified epithelium - Contains pharyngeal tonsils & receive Eustashian tubes, dust hits membrane at 90% angle turn.
External Respiration
Internal Respiration
Cellular Respiration
Mechanisms of Breathing
Functions to clean, warm, & moistens air for delivery to lungs. Lined with ciliated cells to trap debris and mucous membrane to lubricate air & prevent drying.
Deliver air to lungs
Aid in venous and lymph return to heart
Expulsion of feces and childbirth through pressure
Funtion of Inspriration/Expiration
From hyoid to larynx, ciliated pseudostratified epithelium.
Air in pleural cavity "sucking chest wound" - lungs can't expand.
1mm diamter, no cartilage, smooth muscle layer for constriction and dilation. Divided into 50-80 terminal bronchioles (5mm diameter, ciliated) end in 2 or more.
Narros airways, destroys aveoli.
Secreted by cells and covers inner surface of aveoli to prevent aveoli from sticking together when they empty & collapse slightly.
Maximum volume moved in and out during single breath.
Vital Capacities
Friction during expansion/contraction of lungs (Pleurisy-dry, inflamed lungs, painful breathing).
Compartmentalization of thoracic organs - separates them to prevent spread of infection.
Function of Membranes
The movement of air into and out of the respiratory components of the bronchiole tree to permit gas exchange with the circulatory system.
Prevents entry of food into airway. Superior opening - glottis is protected by 2 flaps called the epiglottis - pushed down by tongue when swallowing and larynx is pulled upward to prevent food from entering.
Prevents entry of food into airway. Function of the Larnyx
Covers inside of cavity (inner side of ribs, diaphragm, and mediasternum)
Parietal Pleura

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