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Exam #2 2


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What are the functions of bones?
support, protection, storage of minerals, movements, blood cell production
What are the 4 types of bones?
long - humerous, femur
irregular - sphenoid, vertebrae
flat - scapula, sternum
What is the anatomy of a long bone?
Periosteum, compact bone, endosteum, medullary cavity, yellow bone marrow, spongy bone, articullar cartilage, epiphysis and diaphysis
What is the periosteum of the long bone?
soft outside tiusse
What does the compact bone do of a long bone
adds strength in between layers
What is the endosteum of a long bone?
2nd soft tissue
What is the medullary cavity?
chamber of space with diapyhsis
What does the spongy bone contain?
contains red bone marrow?
What is located in the epiphysis of the long bone?
red bone marrow
What is the long shaft of the long bone?
What is bone marrow?
soft tissue
What are the 4 principle types of bone cells?
Osteogenic, osteoblast, osteocyte and osteoclast
Which type of bone is a type of stem cells that continues to divide and form new osteogenic cells?
Which bone cells are chosen to produce bone tissue and given a new name?
Which bone cell is a former osteogenic cell that uses nutrients and other materials to create bone matrix?
Which bone cells activity lowers blood calcium levels and makes bones stronger
Which bone cell is trapped inside the matrix that they built
Which bone cell monitors the health of the bone and will call on osteoblasts when needed
Which bone cell frees calcium from bones and dissolves bone matrix to release calcium into the blood
What is bone matrix?
non living part of the bone.
What is bone matrix made up of?
What is hyroxyapatite?
compound made up primarily of calcium and phosphate and provides strength
What do collagen fibers do in the bone?
provides flexability
What can result if collagen fibers don't grow right
What is the structural unit of compact bone?
What is the arrangement of osteons?
combination of cells arranged in concentric rings. It is cylindrical in shape and runs parralel to the bone
What is lamella?
rings of the matrix
what is lucuna?
chamber in which each osteocyte resides
what is the canalicula?
tunnels that connect the osteocyte with the central canal and each other
what is yellow bone marrow made up of?
What is the definition of a joint?
articulations - two bones join each other
What are the 2 ways to classify joints?
Function and structures
What are the 3 ways joints move?
Synarthroses, amphiarthroses, and diarthroses
What are the major categories of joints?
Fribrous, cartilaginous, synovial
What are the 3 types of fibrous joints?
sutures, gomphoses, and syndemoses
Which type of movement of the joint offers little to no movement, example skull, bone
Which type of movement has come movement? example: vertebrae on top of each other?
Which type of movement of joints are freely moveable? example: knees, elbows
What are the two types of cartilagnous joints?
synchondroses and symphsis
What is an example of synchondroses? and how is it attached?
ribs attached to sternum, and hyaline
What is an exampole of symphysis?
bones joined by fiber cartilage, coxae to coxae
What are synovial joints?
bones not pined by fiber or cartilage
What is the joint that has space between the bones that contains synovial fluid?
synovial joints
What are the six types of synovial joints?
ball and socket, condyloid, saddle joints, gliding, hinge, pivot joints
What are six types of movement of joints?
flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, rotation
What is flexion?
Flexion is movement of joint in which the angle between 2 sets of bones decrease
What is extension?
movement in which the angle betwen 2 sets of bones increase
What is abduction?
movement away from the midline of the body
What is adduction?
movement towards the body
What is circumduction?
making a circular motion. Proximal end of bone stays stationary whereas distal end remains
What is rotation?
What is the function of muscles
Movement of the skeleton, communication, moving materials through passages, heat production
What is outside of the muscle called?
Inside a cut muscle are long tubes lined up next to each other, what are these called?
inside each fascicle is another tube called?
muscle cells, also called muscle fiber.
Inside muscle cells are more fibers called?
Inside the myofibrils are fibers called?
What is contraction of a muscle?
when the muscle cells shorten and cause movement to occur
Are muscles capable of pushing?
What is relaxation?
when muscles cells lengthen and release tension (isotonic)
What role does the brain play in muscle movement?
where decisions for contracting and relaxing takes place, sends electrical waves to specific muscles to stimular contraction
What are neurons?
nervous tissue cells that are used to carry electrical signals within the body
What is the combination of neuron and muscle cells called?
neuromuscular junction
What is the plasma membrane of a muscle cell?
What does the sarcolemma contain?
acetyocholine receptors
What is the muscle cell made up of?
sarcolemma, transverse tubules (t-tubes), sarcolasmic reticulum (smooth ER), actin, tropomyosin and troponin, myosin
What is the tunnel that passes from 1 side of the muscle to the other?
What is the smooth ER of a muscle cell?
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Where do calcium ions get stored?
sarcoplasmic reticulum
What are long twisted chains of proteins known as the thin filament called?
What is a protein string that covers up special spots on each actin in the chain?
What is the protein that moves tropomyosin off those special spots?
What protein group is surrounded by actins?
how does the sliding filament theory work?
see special card
What is the process of relaxation?
brain sends signal to quit contracting, the Acetylcholinerase attack and move out the Ach. This stops the muscle from excited.
What is the definition of motor unit?
a neuron and all of the muscles cells it is capable of stimulating
What is the strength of a contraction based on?
the # of motor units being used.
if you use a neuron, all of the cells connected to it will contract, true or false?
Having multiple motor units allows for?
varying strengths of contraction.
What is an advantage of having multiple motor units?
doesn't place the whole muscle at risk if the single, controlling neuron is damaged.
What is another advantage of having multiple motor units?
allows the muscle to use motor units in shifts which prolongs fatigue.
What controls the differnce between fine control of muscles and coarse control?
motor unit size
What are two types of contraction?
isotonic and isometric
What is the type of contraction that the length of the cells changes but the tone of the cells remain constant?
What is muscle tone?
amount of tension in the cells when they are at rest.
What 2 types of isotonic contraction requires movement?
concentric and eccentric phase.
What happens during concentric phase?
cells shorten
What happens during eccentric phase?
cells lengthen
What is the type of contraction that the length of the cells remain constant but the tone changes
Which type of neuron carries signals from CNS to PNS and outbound messages
motor neuron
Which type of neuron is found in CNS only and is used for storing information and sometimes connection of a sensory to motor
What is the anatomy of a motor neuron?
dendrites, soma, axon
What part of a motor neuron has branches of the soma that send signals to the soma?
Which part of a motor neuron receives dendrites info
What is an axon?
long extension off the soma that carries signals away to another structure.
What is the trigger zone where soma becomes the axon, where a new electrical signal will begin?
axon hillock
What is a synaptic knob?
widened end of the axon branches
What does the synaptic knobs contains?
neurotransmitters for communicating with other structures.
What is a type of support cells for neurons that wrap themselves around some nueurons axons?
schwann cell
What do schwann cells and ligodentrocytes produce?
several layers of myelin around the axons.
What does myelin do?
insulates the axon for electrical singls and makes the axon faster at carrying signals.
What do Schwann cells produce which provides a path for healing if an axon is damages?
What are the types of neuroglia?
oligodentrocytes, ependymal cells, microglia, astrocytes, schwann cells and satellite cells
What nervous system is the oligodentrocytes found?
in Central Nervous System *CNS
What type of neuroglia produces myelin around nueron axons?
Which type of neuroglia produces cerebral spinal fluid?
ependymal cells
What type of neuroglia cells is a type of white blood cell?
What type of meuroglia creates the blood/brain barrier?
What type of cell produces myeline and neurilemma around neuron axons?
schwann cells
What nervous system are Schwann Cells found?
in PNS
What are the three principal functions of the CNS?
way to get signal from PNS to the brain and back again.
locomotion and reflexes
What are reflexes?
automatic, involuntary, fast, sterotypical
How many spinal nerve pairs are there?
What allows pts for neurons to enter or exit spinal cord?
spinal nerve pairs
What is surrounded by meninges?
spinal nerve pairs
What are 3 layers of tissue called?
What is the outer most layer of the meninges called?
What is the 2nd layer of meninges called?
What is the third layer of meninges called?
pia mater
What is muscle fatigue?
progressive weaknews and loss of contracility that results fro mprolonged use of muscles
What are some causes of muscle fatigue?
ATP production is decreased, lactic acid lowers Ph in muscles and slows enzymes, runs out of Ach.
Name the 3 systems that muscles use to get ATP
Phosphogen, Aerobic, Glyocen/lactic acid
Which system provides immediate ATP and activity and allows for strongest and fastest activites?
phosphogen system
What is a problem with the phospogen system?
stored ATP only lasts about 10 seconds
Which systems uses glucose and ferments it to make ATP
Glycogen/Lactic Acid system
What does the fermentation of glucose produce
lactic acid
What is a quick way to make ATP, which system?
Glycogen/Lactic acid
Which system has less strength and speed and is not very efficient (2-4 atp for every glucose
Glycogen/Lactic acid
Which system lasts 1.5 - 2 minutes at high level of fitness
glycogen/lactic acid
Whis system uses glucose an doxygen to make ATP and produces CO2
aerobic system
which system has even less strength and speed and is very effiecient at producing ATP (36-68) atp/glucose
Aerobic system
What is muscle growth due to?
increase in # of myocin and active filaments
What is the function of the nervous sytem?
storage of information and communication
What are the parts of the nervous system?
CNS, PNS, Somatic and Autonomic
What is contained in the CNS?
brain and spinal cord
What is contained in the Peripheral Nervous system
nerve cells and rest of body
What is contained in the somatic nervous system?
nerve cells that we have control over
What is the autonomic nervous system?
What are two types of autonomic nervous system?
Sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic
Which nervous sysstem prepares you for action and stimulates the heart eyes, brain, muscles
Sympathetic nervous system
Which nervous system inhibits digestive system, urinary and reproduction systems
Sympathetic nervous system
Which nervous system is rest and digest?
Which nervous system lowers activity, stimulates digestive and happens when sleeping after meal?
What are three types of neurons?
sensory, interneurons, motor neurons
Which neuron carries signals from the PNS to CNS
sensory neuron
Which neuron carries signals from the CNS to PNS
motor neurons
Motor axons contain what matter?
gray matter
Sensory axons contains what matter
white matter
Where are the dorsal horns located on the spinal cord
What is the dorsal root ganglion
a branch of spinal nerves that enters the spoinal cord on its dorsal side, composed of sensory fibers
The dorsal root ganglion is comprised of what matter?
white matter
Gray matter is located on what side of the spinal cord
What shape are Eurthrocytes
Where are eyrthrocytes produced?
in red bone marrow
how long do eyrthrocutes live?
about 120 days
What is the function of eyrthrocytes?
carry oxygen and some carbon dioxide
Does eyrthrocytes have a nucleous
each red blood cell contains how many molecules of hemoglobin?
What is hemoglobin?
protein made up of parts
What are the parts of hemoglobin
heme and globin
how many heme in hemoglobin
What is a type of protein in hemoglobin?
What is the function of globin?
carries some carbon dioxide
What is heme converted into during destruction
biliverdin, then bilirubin, then bile. All happens in the liver
What are WBC called?
Where are leukocytes produced?
red bone marrow
What do luekocytes play a role in?
What are two types of leukocytes?
granulocytes and agranulocytes
Which type of leukocyte has many lobes and is called polymorphonucleic
That are the three types of granulocytes
netrophils, eosinophils and basophils
Which granulocyte contains 60-70% of all wbc
Which granulocytes contain 2-4% of all wbc
Which granulocyte is the least common of wbc
Which granulocyte attacks bacteria
What does eosinophils fight in the wbc?
allergens and parasitic worms
Which type of granulocyte stains more purpose
Which type of granulocyte secretes histamine and heparin
What is heparin
Name 2 types of agranulcytes?
lymphocytes and monocytes
What are two types of lymphocytes?
T cells and B cells
What do T cells attack?
cancer cells, viruses and foreign cells.
What do B cells produce?
Which type of agranulocyte contains 3-8% of wbc
which type of agranulocyte become dendric cells, microglia, dust cells in lungs, macrophages?
Which type of agranulocyte cleanup debris of the virus after a defense has taken place
Which element of bloock produced in red bone barrow and is part of the clotting process?
what is anoter name for platelets
What is the function of the heart
circulate blood
What is the right side of the heart called?
pulmonary side
What is the left side of the heart called?
What does the right side of the heart collect?
deoxygentated blod from the body and sends it to the lungs to get reoxygenated
What does the left side of the heart collect?
oxygenated blood from lungs and send to the body
What are the two structures of the heart?
pericardiam and heart wall
What is the double layered membrane sack around the heart?
What is the outside layer of the pericardium called?
parietal layer
what is the inside layer of the pericardium called?
visceral layer
Why is there fluid between the parietal and visceral layer of the heart?
to beat w/o friction, protects heart and surrounding organs, isolates infection from the heart
What are the 3 layers of the heart wall
endocardium, myocardium, epicardium
Which layer of the heart wall is the middle layer and has thcik muscle tissue
What layer of the heart lines outside of heart and is same as visceral layer
What layer of the heart lines the chambers of the heart?

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