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Understanding Science Final


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A method of identification that compares fragments of DNA
DNA fingerprinting
central portion of the cell containing all the DNA to run the cell
small structures within the cell which produce energy, inherited through mother
the migration of molecules through a solution under the influence of electricity
repeated sequences of base pairs varying from 20 to 100 base pairs long
variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs)
portions of the DNA not used to code genetic information
portions of the DNA that contain the genetic information that determines an organism’s development
the scientific application of the principles of heredity to perpetuate desirable qualities in the human race
organisms that contain artificially inserted genes not acquired through pollination or breeding
transgenic organisms
microprojectile bombardment to shoot genes into target organism’s cells where some are incorporated into the DNA
gene gun method
uses a soil-dwelling bacteria that can insert its DNA into that of a plant
Agrobacterium method
Self-renewing, unspecialized cells that can differentiate into multiple cell types
Stem cells
to become specialized in form and function
tightly packed cells that line the outside and inner cavities of our body whose function is to protect underlying tissue from injuries, pathogens, and drying out
Epithelial tissue
a disease-causing agents
cells are widely separated by a noncellular matrix whose functions include binding organs together, supporting and protecting internal organs, filling spaces, producing blood cells, and storing fat
Connective tissue
allows for voluntary and involuntary movement
Muscular tissue
allows for sensory input, integration of data, and motor output
Nervous tissue
Derived from the inner part of a 4-5 day-old embryo
Embyronic stem cells
in an artificial environment outside the living organism
in vitro
have the potential to develop into any cell type
Undifferentiated cells that occur within differentiated tissue
Adult stem cells
have the potential to form a limited number of tissue types, depending on source
clone an individual to develop ESCs that are differentiated into needed organs
therapeutic cloning
two individuals produce offspring having a combination of genes inherited from both parents
Sexual reproduction
a single individual produces offspring genetically identical to itself
Asexual reproduction
manually separate an early embryo into individual cells that are allowed to develop into complete organisms
produce a clone of an adult
Somatic cell nuclear transfer
nucleus is removed
clone an individual and allow it to be born
Reproductive cloning
any disorder that affects the heart’s ability to function normally, most commonly a narrowing or blockage of the coronary arterie
cardiovascular disease
an interruption in blood supply to the brain
abnormal concentration of lipids or lipoproteins in the blood
the heart loses the ability to pump blood efficiently
congestive heart failure
high blood pressure, generally considered 140/90
chest pain caused by inadequate blood flow through the coronary arteries
angina pectoris
a chronic disease where the body’s insulin doesn’t effectively control blood sugar levels
type 2 diabetes
the thyroid gland fails to produce enough thyroid hormones, causing mental and physical sluggishness
inflammation of the gallbladder
deposit of uric acid in the joints, causing pain especially in the legs and feet
a chronic disease causing deterioration of the joint cartilage and the formation of bone spurs
an accumulation of incompletely developed follicles in the ovaries, characterized by irregular menstrual cycles, infertility and excess hair growth
polycystic ovary syndrome
episodes of stopped breathing during sleep which may lead to daytime drowsiness
sleep apnea
molecules containing both carbon and hydrogen
organic compounds
nutrients the body needs in large amounts
nutrients the body needs in small amounts
Function as short-term energy storage
functions include structure and movement, messengers, defense, transport, enzymes
speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction
contain all 20 types of amino acids
complete protein sources
lack some amino acids
incomplete protein sources
Function as an efficient, long-term energy storage molecule and in cellular structure
will not dissolve in water
will dissolve in water
carbon molecules are considered “saturated” with hydrogen molecules
Saturated fats
carbon molecules share some double bonds so not “saturated” with hydrogen
Unsaturated fats
created by partially hydrogenating unsaturated fats to make them solid at room temperature
Trans fat
fatty deposits containing saturated fat and cholesterol
carries cholesterol from the liver to cells
low density lipoproteins - LDLs
carries cholesterol from the cells to the liver where it is converted to bile salts and eliminated from the body
high density lipoproteins - HDLs
Organic compounds the body needs for metabolic purposes but can’t manufacture in adequate amounts
Required elements in the diet
body contains (more than) >5g of each
body contains (less than) <5g of each
Unicellular to multicellular organisms that do not make their own food
organisms that live on or within another organism without contributing to the survival of the host
unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms
A medication to treat or prevent a bacteria infection
simple submicroscopic parasites that are unable to replicate without a host
Single celled organisms containing a nucleus
multicellular worms with internal organs
A disease caused by the consumption of food or drink
Food poisoning
Autoimmune disease that destroys the cells that line nerves
Guillain-Barre syndrome
red blood cells are destroyed, damaging organs
hemolytic uremic syndrome
Quickly pass food through a radiation field to mutate the DNA of microorganisms
Any infectious agent used intentionally to inflict harm upon others
Biological weapons
High priority agents that health care systems should be prepared for
Category A biological weapons
Second highest priority agents
Category B biological weapons
Emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass dissemination in the future
Category C biological weapons
Infection by Bacillus anthracis that occurs after skin contact with products from contaminated animals
Cutaneous anthrax
Infection by Bacillus anthracis that occurs after consumption of undercooked, contaminated meat
Gastrointestinal anthrax
Infection by Bacillus anthracis that occurs after very small particles suspended in the air are inhaled
Inhalation anthrax
infection by Caused by the Variola virus whose symptoms begin with fever, fatigue, muscle pain, vomiting
infection caused by the Yersinia pestis bacteria common to rodents whose symptoms include an infection of lymph nodes
Bubonic plague
infection caused by the Yersinia pestis bacteria common to rodents whose symptoms include bleeding into the skin and organs
Systemic plague
infection caused by the Yersinia pestis bacteria common to rodents whose symptoms include respiratory failure, shock
Pneumonic plague
A cellular disorder requiring a series of mutations within cellular DNA that results in the cells forming a tumor
an accumulation of cancer cells
a tumor derived from epithelial cells
a tumor derived from muscle, fat, bone, cartilage, or other connective tissue
a cancer derived from white blood cells
causes mutations
cancer causing
removal of the growing tumor and some surrounding tissue
the use of drugs to kill cancer cells
direct powerful beams of radiation into cancer cells
Radiation therapy
the removal of hormone-producing glands and consumption of drugs that interfere with the production or action of hormones
Hormone therapy
skin cancer that involves melanocytes
skin cancer that begins in the lowest layer of the skin
basal cell carcinoma
skin cancer that develops in upper layers of skin
squamous cell carcinoma
Non-native species which enter a new ecosystem
Exotic species
includes the species within a community plus the physical environment
a species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health
invasive species
feed on fish
feed on plankton
a point in space and time at which gravitational forces cause matter to have infinite density and infinitesimal volume, and space and time become infinitely distorted
elementary, subatomic particles
a change in the observed frequency of a wave that occurs when the source and observer move relative to one another
Doppler shift
how many waves pass a given point in a given time
distance between adjacent peaks
measure the slight changes in the EM spectrum of a star as the mass of a large planet orbiting the star slightly changes its velocity as the system moves through the galaxy
Doppler spectroscopy
observations of the periodic decrease in the light intensity of a star seen on Earth as a planet passes in front of its sun
The differences of DNA are found in:
- number of base pairs
- arrangement of chromosomes
- order of base pairs
Individual identification
sequencing their base pair order
sequence small numbers of variable pieces
problems with sequencing base pair order of DNA fingerprinting
-unique code
-expensive and time consuming
problems with sequencing small numbers of variable pieces of DNA fingerprinting
-not necessarily unique
-cant tell if came from same/related/nonrelated person
DNA finger printing procedure
-Get DNA sample
-Extract DNA from the cell
-Amplify the DNA to make copies
-Cut DNA into pieces using enzymes
-Arrange the pieces by size using electrophoresis
-Mark the pieces with radioactive molecules
-Take a picture of the molecule arrangement
-Compare fingerprints
The Common source for DNA fingerprinting that uses variable number tandem repeats. It is inhereted from both parents and a combination of parental genes.
Nuclear DNA (nDNA)
May be used if DNA sample is old, degraded, or very small. It's more difficult to use than nDNA and is more time consuming. It can be used for a meternally related individual for fingerprint comparison.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
Uses for DNA fingerprinting
-maternity and paternity
-establish legal nationality
-biological parents
-criminal investigation forensics
-ID of unknown
Can be used only to establish maternity
mtDNA (Mitochondrial DNA)
Issues with DNA fingerprinting
-Small amounts of DNA
-Expensive and time consuming
-Civil liberties
plants and animals- not people
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
limitations to GMOs
-organizations must be able to breed together
-not a specific genetic change
Methods of GMO
-gene splicing
-genetic engineering
Creating a GMO
-find gene that corresponds to the desired trait

-understand how gene works

-cut target DNA segment from original organism using enzyme scissors

-insert gene into target using gene gun method

-grow plants in a medium containing the herbicide or antibiotic corresponding to marker gene

-test new plant

-cross GMO w/ conventional crop varieties
Farmers biggest challenges
Weed control
A soil bacteria that produces an insecticide which doesnt impact mammals and birds
Pest control
Most GMOs
herbicide tolerant or pest resistant
bacterial insecticide gene was incorporated into these crops for pest control
corn and cotton
Reasons for GMOs
-Weed Control
-Pest Control
-Improves taste, nutrition or shelf life of plants
Future of GMO
-delayed ripening tomatoes
-salt tolerant tomatoes
-naturally decaffinated tea or coffee
-nicotine-free tabacco
Potential problems of GMOs
-could increase pest rates
-could produce new proteins that trigger allergies or produce toxins
-ethical issues (dangerous/morally wrong)
how are crops genetically modified to assit a farmer with insect pest control?
bacterial insecticide gene was incorporated into crops
how are crops genetically modified to assit a farmer with weed control?
herbicide tolerant crops are genetically modified to be tolerant to a broad spectrum herbicide (not harmful to crops)
What are the tissue types used in stem cells
Differences of embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells
-embryonic s.c. are from inner part of 4-5 day old embryos, is obtained from excess embryos created for in vitro, can be generate in large numbers, could form benign tumor if directly injected into organism
-ASC are rare and wont culture indefinitely, can be returned to undifferentiated state. they are multipotent and difficult to identify and isolate from tissue
types of reproduction
sexual and asexual
Types of cloning
-reproductive cloning
-theraputic cloning
-Somatic cell nuclear transfer
Why an animal may be cloned
-to replicate GMOs reliably
-Reproduce valuable livestock more precisely than with selective breeding
-replicate endangered or extinct species
Problems with cloning
-very inefficient
-problems during pregnancy
-clones seem to age faster than normal
-clones are virtually identical to the donor
Uses of stem cells
-still energy in research and development
-treat cancer
-understand embryonic development
-treat new drugs
-transplantation research
Measures of obesity
- % body fat
- waist size
Body mass index (BMI) equation
Weight (in kg)
height2 (in m)

25-29.9 indicates overweight 30 or more is obese
Causes of obesity
-Physical inactivity
-consume more calories thank the body needs
-evironmental factors
-lifestyle behaviors
-psychological factors
-illness (depression)
impacts of obesity
-problems w/ cardiovascular system- stroke, high cholestroal, congestive heart failure, hypertension
-endocrine system (type 2 diabetes)
-digestive system
-skeletal system
-reproductive system
-urinary system
how to control weight
regular exercise (any exercise at all!) and healthy diet
why should you try to decrease the amount of fat consumed in your diet?
it can lead to many health problems such as clogged arteries and stroke.
The body needs
-large amounts of macronutrients (carbs, proteins)
-smaller amounts of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals)
Types of pathogens
develops because of genetic variations within a population
antibiotic resistance
causes of antibiotic resistance
-natural evolution
-inappropriate human use
-livestock use
symptoms of food poisioning
-flu like
-may affect nervous system
-can cause death
triggered 1 in every 1000 cases of food poisioning
Guillain Barre Syndrome
Rare form of food poisioning
how to prevent food poisioning
wash hands
cook meat thoroughly
wash fruit and vegetables
How irradiation assists in prevention of food poisioning
it mutates the DNA of microorganisms
Problems with irradiation
slight increase of price
public concerns about radiation
cheap, easy to make, simple to conceal, produced anywhere, not easy to weaponize, divided into three categories
Biological weapons
Biological weapons
-small pox
-viral hemorraghic fevers
Two common sources of Salmonella food poisioning
eggs and raw meat
Causes of cancer
-organic chemicals

What are organic chemicals that cause cancer?
what are the viruses that cause cancer?
-hepatitis B
-human papillomavirus
Common Cancers
-Prostate (men)
-Breast (women)
Breast cancer treatment
-Radiation therapy
-hormone therapy
Chemotherapy side effects
-vomiting and nausea
-hair loss
-decreased clotting of blood
-increased infections
-mouth sores
Two major types of skin cancer
Melanoma and nonmelanomas
two types of nonmelanomas skin cancer
basal cell carcinoma
squamous cell carcinoma
treatments for skin cancer
laser surgery
Great Lakes
what are the largest and smallest great lakes?
largest- superior
smallest- ontario
how are exotic species introduced?
deliberate human intro
accidental human intro
problems with exotic species
invasive species
lack of population controls
leads to extinction of native species
Native to Atlantic ocean and lake ontario, attack large fish, entered great lakes through welland canal, parasitic
sea lamprey
Problems with sea lamprey
they contributed to the loss of most large piscivores
Native to Atlantic Ocean, Planktivores, entered through welland canal
Alewife Problems
sensitive to changes in food availability
types of Pacific Salmon
-Brown Trout
-Pink Salmon
What Pacific Salmon do
-reduce alewife number
-provide commercial and recreational fishing
Efficient Planktivores, easy transport, small bottom dwelling clams
Zebra Mussels
Zebra mussel problems
-attach to hard surfaces
-form large colonies
A wetland plant, originally from Eurasia
Purple Loosestrife
Control of Purple loosestrife
difficult to control, eradicate
how to control exotic species
prevent their introduction
currently evaluating its effectiveness
Universe was created 15 billion years ago from a cosmic explosion that hurled matter in all directions
Big Bang Theory
Electromagnetic Spectrum categories
visible light
gamma rays

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