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AN 5


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What is an endoparasite?
internal parasites that live within the animal.
How do you diagnose an endoparasite?
1. Know the life cycles
2.Blood smear
3. Fecal cloating
4. EKG for heartworm
5. muscle bippsy for parasite in teh muscle
6. x-ray for heartworm
What is prepatent period?

Give an example.
time from infection until the time infection can be routinnely diagnoses

Ex. 1 week olf puppy would not show parasites in a routine fecal float b/c he is too young to dx. hookworm whose PPP = 12days
What is the definitive host?
the host that harbors the adult, mature,or sexually active stages of a parasite
What is an intermediate host?
the host that harbors the larval, immature or asexual stages of a parasite
What is a protozoa
unicellular otganism.
What are clinical signs of internal parasitism?
1. GI
2. Respiratory - cough, difficulty breathing
3. D/V
4. Bllod in stool
5. constipation
6. anorexia
8. unthrifty
9. weight loss
10. poor hari coat
11. cough
12. dyspnes
What is another name for a blood protozoa? And where are they commonly found?
Who are the intermediate hosts for hemoprotozoa?
What is another name for the protozoa "swimmies"?
trophozoite - seliada, flagellates
Who is teh definitive host for Dirofilaria immitis?
What are characteristics of Trematodes?
1. Flat, leaf shape
2. Flat worms or liver flukes
3. Hermaphrodite
4. Suckers on head end
5. Find in GI, Liver, Lung
6. Opercilated eggs
7. Intermediate host - SNAILS
What is the scientific name for Lung Fluke?
Paragonimus keelicoto
What are characteristics of cestodes?
1. Tapeworms
2. Flattened & segmented
3. Proglottid - contains eggs w/ hexacanth embro]yos (have 6 hooks)
4. Egg eaten by intermediate host -
What is teh scientific name for Cat Tapeworm & where does it come from"
Dipylidium caninum

What is the common name for Dirofilaria immitis?
1. Heart worm
How big is a RBC?
7 microns
Name 6 types of nematodes:
1. Ancylostroms
2. Uncinaria
3. Ascarids
4. Tripchuris vulpis
5. Spirocerca
6. Strongyles
What are 2 types of ascarids?
1. Toxocara - rough shell

2. Toxascaris leonine - mors spass in egg mass
What is distinctive about Trichuris vulpis?

Where do yo find them?
1. Eggs have bi-polar plugs on the ends

2. Adults look like whips

- Cecum/colon
What nematodes are common to horses? and where do you find them?

What is a scolex? & how is it used?
It is the head of the tapeworm which is used to attach to the intestinal wall
What are proglottids? & what do they look like?
This is the sectional part of the tapeworm which often carry eggs containing hexacanth embryos.

They look like cucumber seeds or pieces of rice
What is the scientific name of dog's tapeworm?
Dipylidium caninum
What family are teh Taenias in?
Who is the intermediate host of Dipylidium caninum
Differentiate between Taenia & D. cninum
1. Taenia - really long with proglottids are shorter & wider
PPP = 4-6 weeks
2. Dipylidium caninum PPP = 2-3 weekws
What is the major indicator of trematodes?
Operculated eggs
Name 2 protozoa
1. Giardia
2. Isospora (Coccidians)
3. Toxoplasma gondii
4. Cryptosporidium
Which endoparasites are zoonotic?
1. Ancylostoma caninum (hookworm
2. Toxocara (roundworm)
3. Toxascaris (roundworm)
4. Microfilaria
What is particular to the Capillaria
Bi-polar plugs bur more barrel shaped than whipworms (Trichuris vulpis)
Where do you find Capillaria inthe body?
Common in food animals in the respiratory system, Kidneys, ureer, eurthra, bladder
What is uniqque about Strongyloids?
Only the female is parasitic in teh host
In what part of the body do you find Trichuris vulpis?
Cecum/ colon

Common Associations:
1. Nematodes
2. Cestodes
3. Trematodes
4. Protozoans
1. round worms
2. Tapes
3. Flukes
4. tiny egg shape
Why do you perform a fecal flotation?
To concentrate the eggs for microscopic examination
Why are fly related diseases difficult to Dx?
Fly is specific to the animal part so you need ot collect a sample to DX
What are the clinical signs for GI parasitism?
2. Blood in stool
5. Lethargy
6. Unthrifty
7. Wt. Loss
8. Poor hair coat
9. Cough
10 Dyspnea
How do you calculate teh magnification total?
occular lense x objective lense

Occular lense is usually 10 x
Objuctive: 4x,10x, 40x 100x`
What is the maximum magnification that you can get from an occular microscope?
What are methods for Dx Ectoparasites?
1/Skin Scraping
Classification system
King Philip Can Order Fresh Green Spinach
What are the caps on eggs called & who has them?
Ocuperated eggs
How to differentiate between nematodes?
Trichostrongyles - round thin shell
Nematodirus - large egg
Trichuris ovis- bipolare oval egg
Which is more accurate: Centrifugation or Fecal flotation?
How to Dx endoparasites?
1. Fecal Flotation
2. Centrifugation
3. Ultrasound
4. X-ray
How to make an ear wax sample?
Roll onto slide gently so that you don't squish
Fix with heat
What protozoans for small animals get?

Large animals?
1. Isospora
2. Eimeria
What are advantages & disadvantages to sending out tests?
1.never see
2. Time delay
3. Expensive
4. Mix up smaples

1. get interpretation from pathologist
2. get tons of blood panels for all kinds of stuff you can't do inhouse
3. Call & talk to a clinician
What are advantages & disadvantages to performing in-house tests?
1. Immediate results
2. PCV is the same in or out of house
3. Fecals - easy & cheap
4. Urinalysis- fragile so if you send it out you can lose pathology
5. CBC - fast & cheap to do in house
What is microscopy
Art & science of the very small
What are microscope parts?
1. Occular lense
2. objective lense
3. light source
4. stage
What is a swinging bucket & what is the advantage of it?
It is a centrifuge that moves horizontally. Set tube & put cover slip on the top, it will not fall off
Whaat do you use sedimentation method for
Put stuff in water b/c you don't want it to float to the top. Everything sinks but you will see stuff that will never float
EX: Trichuris is hard to float
What happens to the solution if there is evidence of crystallization?
The solution is less dense
Methods of Dx endoparasites?
1. Life cycles
2. Blood smear
3. Fecal floats
4. Cardiogram (heartworm)
5. Muscle biopsy (parasite in muscle)
6. X-ray (heartworm)

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