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LIFE SCIENCE 1.3

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Summarize the history of taxonomy.
Dates back to the origin of human language. Western scientific taxonomy
started in Greek a hundred years BC and are here divided into prelinnaean and postlinnaean.
Explain the use of binomial nomenclature.
The two-part Latin names distinguish these different species of organisms yet also show that all organisms are similar to each other. Like all maple trees for example.
Describe how the science of taxonomy supports God's unlimited power and creativity.
Taxonomy gives Christians a glimpse of the power and creativity God used to breathe life into His world.
binomial nomenclature
the two-part scientific naming system
taxonomy
the scientific classification of organisms
What is the ladder of life?
Mammals
Vertebrates
Invertebrates
Plants
Nonliving things



Psalm 24: 1-2
"The earth is the Lord's and everything in it, the world, and all who live in it; for He founded it on the seas and established it on the waters"
Who was the first scientist to organize living and nonliving things into categories?
Aristotle-Greek philosopher
Aristotle's ladder of life was restructured and called what?
The Great Chain of Being-started with Earth's lowest life-forms, moved up to humans, and ended with spiritual beings such as angels.
Who created a workable system for classifying plants and animals?
The Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus.
Linnaeus set up two large categories to classify all living things: one for plants and one for animals called?
Kingdom Plantae
Kingdom Animalia
Name 3 scientists who influenced taxonomy.
Aristotle
Carolus Linnaeus
Robert H. Whittaker

Who proposed a five-kingdom system to separate all of these various types of organisms into their own kingdoms: animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, and protists?
Robert H. Whittaker
Why should a Christian study taxonomy?
Learning about taxonomy can help you better appreciate the wide variety of marvelous creatures that God placed on Earth.
How did technology change taxonomy?
Taxonomists have organized organisms into 3 domains-Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya

List the 8 taxonomic categories in proper order.
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species






State the 3 domains and the 6 major kingdoms.
The 3 domains...
Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya
6 Major Kingdoms...
Archaea-kingdom Archaea
Eukarya-kingdoms Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, and Protista









Kingdom Animalia
Contains all the animals, both vertebrates and invertebrates
Kingdom Fungi
Contains all fungus, nongreen organisms that reproduce from spores and absorb their food.
Kingdom Protista
Contains organisms that have a nucleus that are not animals, plants, fungi, or bacteria. Uncellular.
Explain Viruses.
Viruses such as Influenza, Polio, Ebola, and HIV

Viruses can reproduce and grow but only when they are inside a host cell.

Viruses are made of proteins rather than cells.



Why might taxonomists want to recognize a new kingdom?
Because some scientists consider viruses to be unusual life-forms, but others disagree.
archaea
a prokaryotic unicellular organism belonging to domain Archaea
bacteria
a prokaryotic unicellular organism belonging to domain Bacteria
prokaryote
a unicellular microorganism that lacks a distinct nucleus
Neisseria meningitides
is a eubacteria responsible for causing meningitis, with affects the brain and spinal column in humans
Cyanobacteria
sometimes called blue-green algae
E.coli
bacteria is commonly found in the human intestinal tract
Bacteriologists
scientists who study bacteria
How do bacteria help ecosystems?
They decompose dead materials by recycling nitrogen, phosphorus, and other valuable nutrients back into an ecosystem.
eukaryote
an organism composed of one or more cells containing a visible nucleus
lichen
an organism formed by a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and an alga or a cyanobacterium
protist
a eukaryotic organism that cannot be classified as a fungi, a plant, or an animal
Zoologist
a scientist who studies animals
Botanists
a scientist who studies plants

Use the word division instead of the word phylum in the classification system

Divisions Bryophyta and Hepaticophyta
Mosses and liverworts
Division Filicinophyta
Ferns
Division Coniferophyta
Evergreens with needlelike leaves
Division Angiospermophyta
Daisies, roses, apple trees, corn oak trees, and grasses
Division Ginkgophyta
ginkgo tree
air bladder
an air-filled bladder or sac found in certain animals and plants
antibiotic
a drug used to kill harmful bacteria
autotroph
an organism that makes its own food
bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
blade
a leaflike structure of algae
budding
a type of asexual reproduction in which a small outgrowth of the parent develops into an independent organism
cilia
the tiny, hairlike projections that help ciliates move
conjugation
the process of sexual reproduction in which two unicellular organisms exchange genetic information
decomposer
an organism that breaks down dead plant and animal material to return it to the soil
electron microscope
a microscope that uses a beam of electrons to produce magnified images
endospore
a protective capsule that some bacteria form
extremophile
a microorganism that lives in extreme conditions
flagellum
a thin, whiplike structure that helps an organism move through liquid
heterotroph
an organism that obtains food from an outside source
HIV
Human Immunodeficiency Virus-the virus that causes AIDS
holdfast
a rootlike structure an organism uses to anchor itself
hyphae
the threadlike filaments in fungi that produce enzymes
influenza
a contagious viral infection that causes muscle aches, inflammation of the respiratory system, fever, and chills
malaria
a disease caused by a sporozoan that is characterized by periodic attacks of chills an high fevers
mold
a type of fungus that grows on food or in damp places
mushroom
a fungus with a cap on top of a stalk

mutualism
the relationship between two organisms that live and work together for the benefit of both
mycelium
the large mass of hyphae that forms the growing structure of fungi
asexual reproduction
a form of reproduction in which offspring arise from a single parent
binary fission
the cell division process in which one cell splits into two identical cells, each having a complete set of DNA
cell theory
a scientific explanation of the properties of cells
cellular respiration
the breaking down of food molecules by cells into usable energy
chromosome
a structure that contains genetic information and directs cell growth
diffusion
the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
DNA
the molecule within a cell that carries the genetic information of an organism
endoplasmic reticulum
an organelle that functions as the cell's transportation system
Golgi apparatus
an organelle that receives, packages, and disperses materials
homeostasis
the ability to maintain a stable internal enviroment
life science
the study of living things
lipid
an organic compound that is a fat or an oil
lysosome
an organelle that breaks down food particles and old cell organelles
meiosis
the cell division process that forms sex cells that contain half the usual number of chromosomes
metabolism
the sum of chemical activities taking place inside an organism
mitochondrion
an organelle that produces energy for the cell
mitosis
the cell division process that forms new cells with an identical copy of the parent's chromosomes
nucleic acid
an organic compound that contains genetic information
nucleotide
the basic structural unit of DNA
organic compound
a compound that contains carbon
osmosis
the diffusion of water through a membrane
replication
the process in which DNA molecules make exact duplicates
ribosome
an organelle that produces proteins rhizome
sexual reproduction
a form of reproduction in which offspring arise from two parents
species
a group of organisms that can mate with one another and produce fertile offspring
technology
the application of science
vacuole
an organelle that stores materials

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