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C C 306M: Nervous System - Symptomatic and Diagnostic Terms


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pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve caused by compression or trauma of the nerve or its roots
cerebral thrombosis
presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel of the brain
stiffening-jerking; a major motor seizure invlving all muslc egroups -- previously termed grand mal (big bad) seizure
disorder affecting the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures
motor deficit
loss or impairment of muscle function
reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD)
condition of abnormal function of the sympathetic nervous system in response to pain perception, usually as the result of an injury to an extremity; symptoms include persistent burning pain, tissue edema, joint renderness, changes in skin color and temperature, and abnormal sweating at the pain site -- decreased mobility caused by pain can lead to muscle atrophy and loss of motor function
abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without onjective cause
herniated disk
protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
carotid TIA
ischemia of the anterior circulation of the brain
inability to judge the form of an object by touch (e.g., a coin from a key)
difficulty speaking
inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis (polio = gray)
sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis (cataplexy), and dreams intruding while awake (hypnagogic hallucinations)
Huntington disease (HD)
hereditary disease of the central nervous system
paralysis of all four limbs
seizure involving a brief loss of consciousness without motor involvement -- previousle termed petit mal (little bad) seizure)
multiple sclerosis (MS)
disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination (deterioration of the myelin sheath) of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurological dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
inflmmation of the meninges
hydrocephalus / hydrocephaly
abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain as a result of developmental anomalies, infection, injury, or tumor
inflammation of the spinal cord
benign tumor of the coverings of the brain
increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
cerebrovascular disease
disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
migraine headache
paroxysmal attacks of mostly unilateral headache oftena ccompanied by disordered vision, nausea, and/or vomiting, lasting hours or days and caused by dilation of arteries
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) / stroke
damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease (e.g., occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus or thrombus or intracranial hemorrhage after rupture of an aneurysm)
spastic paralysis
stiff and awkward muscle control caused by a central nervous system disorder
cerebral embolism
obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
cerebral atherosclerosis
condition of lipid (fat) buildup within the blood vessels of the brain (ather/o = fatty [lipid] paste)
herpes zoster
viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves, characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilaterally -- also known as shingles
inability to locate a sensation properly, such as to locate a point touched on the body
flaccid paralysis
defective (flabby) or absent muscle control caused by a nerve lesion
sensory deficit
loss or impairment of sensation
state of mental confusion due to disturbances in cerebral function -- there are many causes, invluding fever, shock, or drug overdose (deliro = to draw the furrow awry in plowing, i.e., to go off the rails)
myasthenia gravis
autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction, causing a progressive decrease in muscle strength with activity and a return of strength after a period of rest
tumor of glial cells graded by degree of malignancy
Huntington chorea
characterized by bizarre involuntary body movements and progressive dementia (choros = dance)
Parkinson disease
condition of slowly progressive degeneration of an area of the brainste, (substantia nigra) resulting in a decrease of dopamine (a chemical neurotransmitter that is necessary for proper movement); characterized by tremor, rigidity of muscles, and slow movements (bradykinesia), usually occuring later in life
sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessation that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
paralysis from the waist down
Alzheimer disease
disease of structual changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in total loss of voluntary muscle control; symptoms advance from muscle weakness in the arms, legs, and muscles of speech, swallowing, and breathing to total paralysus and death -- also known as Lou Gehrig disease
seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms
to pull together; type of seizure that causes a series of sudden, involuntary contraction of muscles
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurological deficit (impairment) -- often precedes a CVA
condition of difficuly articulation; group of related speech impairments that may affect the speed, range, direction, strength, and timing of motor movement as a result of paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of speech muscles (arthr/o = articulation)
cerebral arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries of the brain
inflammation of the brain
pain along the course of a nerve
paralysus on one side of the body
cerebral aneurysm
dilation of a blood vessel in the brain (aneurysm = dilation or widening)
partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses (may or may not be associated with convulsion)
cerebral palsy (CP)
condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth, characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination (palsy = paralysis)
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
a condition of progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in total loss of voluntary muscle control; symptoms advance from muscle weakness in the arms, legs, muscles of speech, swallowing, and breathing to total paralysis and lack of muscle coordination (palsy = paralysis)
impairment of itnellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion (dementio = to be mad)
vertebrobasilar TIA
ischemia of the posterior circulation of the brain
spina bifida
congential defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue
inflammation involving two or more nerves, often owing to a nutritional deficiency such as lack of thiamine
tatile stimulation
evoking a responnse by touching
temporary or permanent loss of motor control
general term referring to levesl od decreased consciousness with varying responsiveness; a common method of assessment is the Glasgow coma scale
any of many types of loss of neurological function associated with interpretation of sensory information
condition without speech; impairment due to locaclized brain injury that affects understanding, retrieving, and formulating meaningful and suquential elements of language

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