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Brain Functions

Terms

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Afferent fibers
sensory fibers that take info from the peripheal ns to the central ns
Cerebrospinal fluid
helps to nourish the brain( via food components) and support it
neurons
transmits messages in the form of electrical signals called impulses
Efferent fibers
from CNS to PNS
Pons
subconscious somatic and visceral motor centers
Pons
relays sensory information to the cerebellum and thalamus
Cerebellum
coordinates complex somatic motor patterns
Sympathetic
elevation of metabolic activity
meninges
protective coverings of the brain
dendrites
receive incoming signals
continuous propagation
movement that goes along the nodes (slowly)
Metencephalon
Pons and Cerebellum
Thalamus
relay and processing centers for sensory information
Hypothalamus
centers controlling emotions, autonomic functions, and hormone production
inhibitory
hyperpolarization, depresses depolarization and action potential
White matter
neural tissue dominatd by myelinated axons
Gray matter
neural tissue dominated by neuron cell bodies
Protection of CNS
Skull, vertebrate, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid
Motor neuron
a neuron whose axon carries motor commands from the CNS towards effectors in the PNS
Saltatory propagation
leaps from one node to another (fast)
Myelencephalon
autonomic centers for regulation of visceral function (cardiovascular respiratory, and digestive system activities)
Peripheral NS
neural tissue outside the CNS that links the CNS with sense organs and other systems
Telencephalon
conscious thought processes, intellectual functions
excitory
promote action potential, causes depolarization
CFS
fluid that the brain floats in
Nervous system
responsible for sensory perception, mental activities, as well as stimulating muscle movements, and involved in the secretion of glands
Type C fiber
smallest, unmyelinated, slowest fiber
Medulla Oblongata
Myelencephalon
Para sympathetic
calm, relaxed
Autonomic NS
components of the PNS and CNS that control visceral functions at the subconscious level
interneurons
only found in the CNS
Brain stem
Medulla Oblongata, Pons, Mesencephalon
Sensory neuron
a neuron whose axon carries sensory info from the PNS towards the CNS
Dura mater
outermost meninge
Visceral NS
provides involuntary regulation of smooth, cardiac muscles, glands, and adipose tissue
Pia mater
innermost, vascular membrane (containing blood vessels)
Cerebellum
coordinates complex somatic motor patterns
Neuron
basic functional unit of the nervous system
spinal cord
an extension of the brain
Arachnoid
middle/ 2nd layer meninge
Medulla Oblongata
relays sensory information to thalmus and to other portions of the brain stem
Metencephalon-Cerebellum
adjusts output of other somatic motor centers in brain and spinal cord
Cerebrum
memory storage and processing
Mesencephalon
Midbrain
Cerebrum
Telencephalon
CNS
brain and spinal cord
Axon
extension of neuron
Cerebellum
adjusts output of other somatic motor centers in brain and spinal cord
Type A fiber
largest diameter, myelinated and fast
synapse
where every 2 cells meet
Neuroglia
are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system
Midbrain
processing of visual and auditory data, generation of reflexive somatic motor responses, maintenance of consciousness
CNS
resonsible for processing and integrating sensory information, planning and coordinating responses to stimuli
Neuroglia
glial cells
Adipose tissue
fat cells, connective tissue
somatic
voluntary
Sulci (sulcus)
ridges in the brain
autonomic
involuntary
Nervous system
responsible for quick and brief responses to stimuli
myelin
increases speed of electron impulse
-70 mV
resting potential/ transmembrane potential
Endocrine system
provides slow responses but the effects are long lasting (ex. growth hormones)
Meningitis
a bacteria infection that interrupts the meninges of the brain (can immediately destroy the CNS)
Type B fiber
small diameter, myelinated,
Gyri (gyrus)
surface of the brain
Neuro glial cell
supportive cells
Cerebrum
conscious and subconscious regulation of skeletal muscle contractions

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