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Key Points 2


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An advantage of the "paired comparison" technique is that it:
helps reduce certain types of rater/observer biases
Research by Sue and his colleagues (1991) found that matching therapist and client in terms of race/ethnicity:
improves treatment outcomes and reduces premature termination for members of some groups but not for others
If an investigator changes the level of significance for his research study from .01 to .001, he is:
less likely to incorrectly reject a true null hypothesis
_____________________ seizures begin in and are often restricted to the temporal lobe and involve impaired consciousness and automatisms such as lip smacking, chewing, fidgeting, and walking in circles:
Complex partial

Complex partial seizures are called "complex" because they impair consciousness and "partial" because they begin in a limited area of the brain, most often the temporal lobe. Because of the involvement of the temporal lobe, these seizures are also known as temporal lobe epilepsy.
Absence seizures
are a type of generalized seizure and involve a brief loss of consciousness with few or no other symptoms.
A myoclonic seizure
is a type of generalized seizure. Its primary symptoms are brief jerky contractions of muscles in different parts of the body, most often in the arms and legs.
According to psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism of _______________ can be said to underlie all other defense mechanisms:
Repression involves pushing unacceptable id impulses into the unconscious. Repression can be viewed as the most "basic" of the defense mechanisms since the goal of all defense mechanisms is to make unwanted impulses unconscious.
involves channeling unwanted impulses into socially-acceptable endeavors. It is considered the most "advanced" of the defense mechanisms.
When determining a treatment plan for mild to moderate hypertension, it is important to keep in mind that:
blood pressure feedback and training in general relaxation are about equally effective
A problem with establishing "comparable worth" is that:
the job evaluation techniques themselves may be gender-biased
Decentralization is preferable to centralization when an organization:
is operating in a highly competitive and constantly changing environment

Because decentralized organizations are more flexible, they are more effective than centralized organizations for adapting to change and meeting the need to make frequent and quick decisions.

When the market and the organization are relatively stable, there is a tendency for an organization to become more centralized.
From the perspective of Rational Emotive Therapy:
people are biologically prone to the acquisition of irrational beliefs

Ellis believed that the majority of behavior has a biological basis. With regard to irrational thoughts, he proposed that they are attributable to natural tendencies toward, for example, moodiness, negativism, and excitement-seeking.
The complete loss of color vision resulting from a lack of functioning cone cells is referred to as:
is the inability to perceive moving objects as the result of brain damage.
Color agnosia
is the inability to name or discriminate between colors.
The goodness-of-fit model proposed by Thomas and Chess is supported by which of the following research findings:
Irritable temperament in children is predictive of insecure attachment only when mothers are not socially supportive.

This finding is consistent with the prediction made by Thomas and Chess – i.e., it is the combination of the child's temperament and the mother's parenting style that determines the child's developmental outcomes.
For an object relations family therapist adopting the approach of Framo, the middle phase of therapy will focus on:
interpreting multiple transferences

According to Framo, the primary goal of the middle phase of therapy is to understand and work through multiple transferences – e.g., transferences between family members and transferences involving the therapist.
The predictions of goal-setting theory appear to be most accurate for:
easy tasks and people high in need for achievement.

While Edwin Locke (1968) considered his goal-setting theory to be applicable to all situations, the research suggests that it may apply better to certain tasks and certain people.
There is some evidence that the predictions of goal setting theory are more accurate for simple tasks and for people who are high in need for achievement (who are more likely to commit to goals).
According to Troiden (1988), homosexual identity development involves which of the following stages:
The duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA):
is more accurate as an indicator of severity than the degree of retrograde amnesia

The length of the post-traumatic (anterograde) amnesia has been found to correlate with the severity and long-lasting consequences of brain injury.
Several subcortical structures are involved in the mediation of emotion. Studies of decorticate animals, for instance, suggest that the __________ is responsible for a violent rage response to even trivial stimuli:
The medulla
is involved in many of the body's vital functions including breathing and heart rate.
Which of the following is most useful for explaining the phenomenon known as the "serial position effect":
the multi-store (three-box) model of memory

The most widely-accepted explanation for the serial position effect is that words in the beginning of the list have been transferred to long-term memory, while those at the end of the list are still in short-term memory. Therefore, the multi-store model, which proposes three distinct memory systems – sensory register, short-term memory, and long-term memory – is most useful for explaining the serial position effect.
Kirkpatrick (1983) identifies four levels of rigor in the evaluation of training programs. According to his model, which of the following represents the highest level of evaluation:
results criteria

distinguishes between four levels: reaction criteria, learning criteria, behavioral criteria, and, at the top, results criteria.

Measures indicating the contribution of training to the organization's objectives are at the top of Kirkpatrick's hierarchy. These measures include cost and turnover reductions, increases in overall productivity, and increases in profits. Behavioral criteria are second to the top and include measures of an individual trainee's on-the-job performance. (Note that some experts consider measures of transfer-of-training to be the "highest" level of evaluation.) Learning criteria are the second level and include written exams and performance tests given at the end of training. Trainees' impressions of and reactions to the training program are considered the "lowest" level of rigor.
In the area of psychometrics, "banding" has been proposed as a method for:
remedying adverse impact

Banding has been recommended as a method for meeting the requirements of affirmative action and for remedying adverse impact.
Quality assurance is concerned with:
refers to the quality of services

availability of services,
client satisfaction with services, and out come of services but not:

Cost effectiveness of services
The theory of social facilitation predicts that
under certain circumstances, the mere presence of others facilitates (enhances) performance.

the mere presence of others increases the likelihood that the dominant response will be activated. If the dominant response is the right one, then the presence of others will enhance performance. (When the dominant response is incorrect, the presence of others results in social inhibition.)
Two studies are conducted to test the effects of a cognitive-behavioral technique on attention span in children with ADHD. The studies are identical in procedures, number of participants, and so on, but in Study #1, p<.05, while in Study #2, p>.10.
the effect size in Study #1 was larger than the effect size in Study #2.

Significance is achieved when the effect size (effect of the IV) is sufficiently large to be detected by the statistical test. There is enough information given in this question to draw this conclusion.
Although most health care workers recognize the importance of hand washing for reducing hospital-based infection, frequency of hand washing by hospital personnel is low. Studies evaluating the effectiveness of various strategies for increasing hand washi
education, reminders, and continuous performance feedback
Wolfgang Kohler’s research on animal learning and animal cognition led to his conclusion that learning is:

Kohler’s research revealed that like humans, animals seem to experience an "aha" experience ("insight") while solving problems.
In order to hire only the most qualified job applicants, a personnel director raises the cutoff score on the selection test. Which of the following accurately describes a consequence of changing the cutoff score in this way:
the number of true positives is decreased

Moving the predictor cutoff score to the right in the scatterplot (i.e., raising the predictor cutoff) will decrease the number of true and false positives and increase the number of true and false negatives.
A cigarette smoker says that she has decided to quit smoking in the next three to four weeks. According to the transtheoretical model of behavior change, this person is in which of the following stages:

From the perspective of the transtheoretical model, a person is in the preparation stage when he/she has a clear intent to take action within the next month.
The risk for migraine is higher for
females over males; the onset of migraines is between puberty and mid-life; and personality characteristics that have been linked to migraines include perfectionism, neatness, restraint, and ambitiousness
A delegating style is optimal for
high in ability and high in willingness
A participating style is best for employees
high in ability and low in willingness.
Hersey and Blanchard recommend a telling style when
the employee is low in both ability and willingness. Even if you're not familiar with the theory, it makes sense that this type of employee would need to be told what to do.

The situational leadership model distinguishes between four leadership styles and proposes that the optimal style depends on the employee's maturity level, which is determined by a combination of his/her ability and willingness to take responsibility.
A selling style is best for this type of employee:
low in ability and high in willingness
A series of meta-analyses by Eagly and her colleagues on gender differences in leadership found that:
men and women do not differ significantly with regard to leadership style
A problem with bounded rationality is that decision makers often examine possible alternatives only until a solution that meets minimal requirements is found and then stop looking for better alternatives. This is referred to as:
Prolonged exposure to stress may lead to chronic __________ by the adrenal glands:
secretion of cortisol

Cortisol and the other corticosteroids are collectively known as the "stress hormones." Chronic stress leads to chronic secretion of these hormones, which can cause a number of problems including increased susceptibility to infection.
is secreted by the pituitary gland and, in females, controls uterine contractions and milk production.
Use of the technique known as meta-analysis entails calculating an "effect size," which can be best defined as:
a standardized mean difference between experimental and control groups

Although there are different ways to calculate an effect size, a commonly-used method involves subtracting the control group mean from the experimental group mean and dividing the result by either the control group standard deviation or the pooled within-group standard deviation. The result is a standard score that indicates the difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of standard deviation units.
When using Beck's cognitive approach to therapy with a client with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:
exposureainavivoaorainaimaginationais considered useful for eliciting "hot cognitions" related to the disorder so that they are available for cognitive work

Beck believes that cognitive modification is possible only when the individual is experiencing affective arousal. Beck argues that, for treatment to be effective, the cognitions underlying the obsessive-compulsive symptoms must be accessed. Probably the best way to do this is through exposure in vivo or in imagination.
To assess the effectiveness of differential reinforcement for alleviating a child's bad habits (i.e., nail biting, thumb-sucking, hair-pulling, and pencil-chewing), the best research design would be which of the following:
multiple baseline
Which terms are descriptive of the Lockean tradition underlying the Western approach to individual psychotherapy:
Most individual therapies – e.g., Freudian psychoanalysis, Jung's analytical psychology, Adler's individual psychology, and Rogerian therapy – reflect a Lockean approach, which emphasizes linear cause-effect relationships, value-free science, and a deterministic and reductionistic perspective. The Lockean tradition reflects an absolutist approach and emphasizes individualism over collectivism..
When using a ___________________, the rater is provided with a list of behavioral examples and asked to indicate whether the ratee’s performance is equal to, worse than, or better than the performance described in each example:
mixed standard scale
For the treatment of hypertension, biofeedback:
is about equally as effective as relaxation or self-monitoring of blood pressure
Social comparison theory's predictions about behavior are particularly applicable to:
situations involving uncertainty

According to social comparison theory, people evaluate their own attitudes, abilities, and emotions by comparing themselves with similar others. Social comparison theory applies to a variety of situations but seems to be particularly accurate in uncertain situations.
With regard to power in the therapeutic relationship, a feminist therapist would most likely:
acknowledge the power differential inherent in the relationship but view it as a temporary condition.

According to Douglas, the power differential inherent in the therapeutic relationship should, first of all, be acknowledged. It should also be viewed as temporary since the goal of therapy will be to terminate the relationship and/or to readjust the relationship so that it is more egalitarian. Douglas stresses the importance of minimizing the power differential inherent in the therapeutic relationship.
To determine if the test you have developed is valid for making diagnostic decisions, you would be most interested in determining if it has adequate:
concurrent validity

It is used to establish validity when the purpose of the test is to estimate current status on a criterion. In this case, the criterion would be some method of diagnosis that is known to be accurate.
feminist therapists:
encourage female clients to express their anger

avoid traditional diagnostic labels

promote an egalitarian relationship through self-disclosure

feminist therapists want women to take control of their lives, they avoid revictimization by not placing the blame for problems on the clients themselves.
The assessment of patients with Alzheimer's Dementia is an ongoing process due to the degenerative nature of the disease and the consequent need to alter the nature of the treatment plan. During the 4th or 5th year of the disorder, an assessment is most
severeaimpairmentsainarecentaandaremoteamemory; fluent aphasia; indifference or irritability; restlessness
Alzheimer's is a degenerative disease with symptoms becoming progressively worse as time passes.

These symptoms are late-stage symptoms (8 to 12 years):
severe impairments in memory and executive functioning; motor rigidity; confusion and delusions
With regard to marital satisfaction across the lifespan, studies using a cross-sectional methodology have generally found:
a U-shaped pattern with the lowest levels of reported satisfaction during the middle adult years

The cross-sectional studies found the lowest reported levels of marital satisfaction (especially among women) during the middle adult years – i.e., among those who had been married for 11 to 30 years. This result was often attributed by the researchers to the presence of adolescents in the family.
Which of the following are required by DSM-IV-TR for a diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder:
a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others since age 15, a history of Conduct Disorder symptoms prior to age 15, plus a current age of 18 or older
The Rosenthal effect
is another name for the self-fulfilling prophecy effect.
An experimenter bias
occurs when the experimenter's behaviors affect the way that participants act. Information about the experimenter's behavior is not provided in this question, so this is not the best response.
The Hawthorne effect
refers to the tendency to perform better because of the attention one gets as a research participant.
A participant in a research study watches a film on the death penalty and then answers survey questions about her attitudes toward the death penalty and other controversial issues. The participant concludes that the purpose of the study is to see if the
Demand characteristics are features of the study that influence a participant's behavior.
A distinguishing feature of the Montessori method is its:
assumption that all learning stems from sense perception
According to Gustav Fechner, the relationship between ________________ is logarithmic in nature:
intensity of physical stimulation and intensity of psychological sensation

Based on his research, Fechner concluded that the intensity of a sensation equals a constant times the logarithm of the intensity of the stimulus.
Two rats are being conditioned to push a button in order to receive a food pellet. During the acquisition of this behavior, both rats were reinforced using a continuous schedule of reinforcement. After their response rates peaked and then declined, one r
Satiation occurs when a reinforcer loses its reinforcing value. In this experiment, there is evidence that both rats have become satiated because their responses had declined. So an extra food pellet will not have any more impact than a single food pellet.
During adolescence, peer pressure:
has the most influence with regard to behaviors that do not have clear standards

Peers seem to have the greatest influence over behaviors that are subjective (e.g., choice of dress and music). (They also have a great deal of influence when it comes to smoking, drinking, and drug use.)
Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder
is the appropriate diagnosis when an individual has one or more physical symptoms that cannot be explained by an actual physical illness or another mental disorder and the symptoms are not voluntarily produced.
From the perspective of Tuckman's (1965) model of group formation, an emphasis on fun, socializing, and enjoyment is characteristic of the __________ stage:

Tuckman (1965) distinguished between four stages of group development --forming, storming, norming, and performing. A fifth stage --adjourning -- was more recently added to the model.

The norming stage is characterized by worker agreement, congruence, and participation in social activities. It can become a "period of play" as the task becomes temporarily abandoned by workers.
When shown the word "hot" a patient says "cold" and when shown the word "rock" the patient says "stone." These errors are most suggestive of:
deep dyslexia

Deep dyslexia involves several reading errors including semantic paralexia, which is characterized by the substitution of words with similar meanings (e.g., cold for hot).
Surface dyslexia
is characterized by reading without comprehension due to an inability to read words that are irregularly spelled (e.g., light, sword).
Pure alexia
is also known as "word blindness" and refers to an inability to read words, even when they have been written by the person him/herself.
Whiat is true about the retrograde amnesia caused by moderate to severe head trauma:
the most recent memories are most vulnerable to amnesia but more remote memories are the first to be recovered
The results of a longitudinal study designed to assess the relationship between age and intelligence is most likely to find that:
measures of reasoning and word fluency begin to show declines in scores sooner than measures of verbal meaning and number.

In their longitudinal study, Shaie, et al., found that all aspects of intelligence do not show significant declines until the late 60s. However, of the aspects listed, reasoning and word fluency begin to decline sooner, usually in the 50s.
As defined by Bandura, self-efficacy beliefs have four sources. These are:
past accomplishments, observations of others, verbal persuassion, and logical verification

Bandura's theory of self-efficacy proposes that people undertake activities they believe they are capable of performing.
Conversion Disorder
The essential feature of Conversion Disorder is an alteration or loss of physical functioning that suggests a serious physical disorder but that, instead, is apparently due to a psychological need or conflict.

individuals with this disorder are susceptible to a "placebo effect," and their symptoms can often be alleviated by sugar pills, hypnosis, or faith healing

the physical symptoms that accompany this disorder do not fit the pattern that would be expected if they were due to an actual medical disorder

individuals with this disorder often seem unconcerned about or indifferrent toward their physical symptoms
An infant's first expression of fear is often in response to unfamiliar adults. The onset and severity of this "stranger anxiety" depends on several factors -- for instance, the child's temperament and previous experience with strangers -- but
6 to 8

Emergence of stranger anxiety at this age has been used as evidence that children do not have strong attachments to caregivers prior to six months of age.
For some patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's Dementia, tacrine hydrochloride (Cognex) or donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept) will have beneficial effects on memory and reasoning. These drugs exert their effects by:
increasing ACh levels

Cognex and Aricept prevent the breakdown of ACh and thereby increase its amount in the brain. While these drugs may improve memory (or keep it from deteriorating further, at least temporarily), they are not considered a cure. Acetylcholine and L-glutamate are the two neurotransmitters that have been most clearly linked to Alzheimer's.
A family therapist has been seeing a mother, father, and their two children in famly therapy for three months. Two days after a therapy session, the father calls the therapist to talk about a conflict he is having with his wife and tries to get the thera
A test developer would use Lord’s chi-square in order to:
evaluate the differential item funcitoning of an item included in a test

In the context of item response theory, differential item functioning (DIF) is another name for item bias and is occurring when one group responds differently to an item than another group even though both groups have similar levels of the latent trait (attribute) measured by the test. Several statistical techniques are used to evaluate DIF. Lord’s chi-square is one of these techniques.
he analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is used to:
The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is used to statistically remove the effects of an extraneous variable. Using it to analyze the data collected in this study would enable the researcher to statistically remove the confounding effects of math aptitude so that the effects of the three strategies on test scores can be compared.
The MANOVA is used to analyze the effects of one or more independent variables on two or more dependent variables that are each measured on an interval or ratio scale.
The split-plot (mixed) ANOVA
The split-plot (mixed) ANOVA is the appropriate technique when at least one independent variable is a between-groups variable and another independent variable is a within-subjects variable.
A randomized block ANOVA
A randomized block ANOVA is also used to control the effects of an extraneous variable, but it requires that participants be "blocked" (grouped) in terms of that variable and participants in each block be randomly assigned to one of the interventions. When using this technique the confounding variable is treated as another independent variable.
Second generation (atypical) antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine (Clozaril) and risperidone (Risperdal) are:
serotonin-dopamine antagonists
A researcher administers a drug to Bonzo, a monkey, that will inhibit RNA synthesis during and some time after Bonzo is learning a simple task. This will most likely have which of the following effects:
impair Bonzo's ability to perform the task on a subsequent day

RNA is necessary for protein synthesis, so inhibiting RNA synthesis will also inhibit protein synthesis. Because protein synthesis is necessary for long-term memory, when it is not allowed to occur, Bonzo will be unable to form long-term memories and, therefore, be unable to recall the task at a later time. (Protein synthesis does not, however, seem to be necessary for short-or intermediate-term memory and inhibiting RNA synthesis would not interfere with the performance of the task at the time of training.)
Research on Kohlberg's theory of moral development has found that very few people ever reach Stage 6. However, some do engage in Stage 5 reasoning and base their moral judgments on:
social contracts

Stage 5 is the first stage in the postconventional level. People in this stage consider social contracts and democratically-chosen laws when making moral judgments.

Internalized universal moral principles underlie the judgments made by people in Stage 6.

People in Stage 4 consider the need to maintain social order when making moral judgments about an act.
Research evaluating the impact of child sexual abuse on the adjustment of males and females has:
producedainconsistentaresults,awithasomeastudiesashowing that females have more negative outcomes and others finding that the outcomes are similar for males and females
Research investigating the impact of parenting style on the academic achievement of children and adolescents suggests that the effects are:
modified by the family's ethnicity/culture

This is some evidence that the benefits of authoritative parenting are modified by family ethnicity or culture.
According to Piaget, the source of motivation for cognitive development is:

Development occurs when a state of disequilibrium brought on by a discrepancy between the person's current understanding of the world (repertoire of schemas) and reality is resolved through the processes of assimilation and accommodation.
From the perspective of schema theory, your memory for an unusual event that occurred this morning:
is likely to be altered by your past experiences in similar situations

According to schema theory, our memories of events are altered by past experiences, current values and emotions, and expectations about the future. In other words, memories are reconstructions rather than reproductions.
An assumption underlying the notion of "groupthink" is that:
pressures toward uniformity limit task effectiveness

Groupthink is characterized by a decrease in willingness to consider divergent points of view, resulting in inappropriate decisions and actions (although not necessarily more extreme ones).
Within the context of organizations, peer appraisals:
are generally most useful for predicting promotions and raises

Peer appraisals seem to be particularly useful for predicting future success (e.g., promotions and raises).
For Minuchin, scapegoating and overprotection of a child by the child's mother and father are both forms of:

As defined by Minuchin, detouring occurs when the tension between husband and wife is reduced through the attention they pay to the child. This attention can involve either blaming the child for the family's problems (scapegoating) or overprotection of the child who is identified by them as ill or weak.
Marital skew is a term used by Lidz to describe
situations in which a dominant partner has serious pathology, while the other partner is dependent and provides support.

A stable coalition occurs when the child and a parent consistently "gang up" against the other parent.

Minuchin describes three types of "rigid triangles" that all involve boundary disturbances.
Childhood-onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:
is more common in boys than girls

While OCD is about equally common in adult males and females, because of its earlier onset in males, it is more common in male children than in female children.
In adults, Major Depressive Disorder occurs about twice as often in females than in males. This gender difference:
does not become evident until mid-adolescence

Although there is some evidence that young girls exhibit more risk factors for depression during childhood, it is not until puberty that the gender difference in the rates for Major Depressive Disorder becomes evident.
A 41-year-old man with an alcohol problem has developed both withdrawal and tolerance. A diagnosis of Alcohol Dependence will be appropriate if the man's symptoms have a duration of at least 12 months and:
members of the man's family say that, as a result of his alcohol use, he no longer participates in normal family and leisure activities

Cravings, drinking alone, and denial of a probelm despite evidence are NOT criteria for Dependence

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