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chapter 31

Terms

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mycelium
interwoven mass of fungal hyphae
hyphae (hypha)
network of tiny filaments in bodies of fungi
ascomycetes (aka sac fungi)
fungi in phylum ascomycota produces sexual spores in saclike asci
basidiomycetes
includes puffballs, mushrooms, shelf fungi and mutualists that form mycorrhizae and rusts and smuts
dikaryotic
2 nuclei one from each parent
conidia
asexual spores produced by ascomycetes
mycosis
fungal infection
nucleariids
unicellular protists include amoebas that feed on algae and bacteria
endophytes
fungi that live inside leaves or other plant parts without causing harm
molds
fungi that reproduce asexually by producing haploid spores by mitosis (form visible mycelia)
plasmogamy
union of cytoplasms of two parent mycelia
basidium (aka club fungus)
little pedestal, cell where karyogamy occurs followed by meiosis
zygosporangium
structure produced in plasmogamy where karogamy then meiosis occur
lichen
the symbiotic collective formed by the mutualistic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic alga or cyanobacteria
ectomycorrhizal fungi
form sheaths of hyphae over surface of a root
zygomycetes
fungi in phylum zygomycota including fast growing molds found on bread, fruits and veggies that make them rot
glomeromycetes
fungi in phylum glomeromycota that form arbuscular mycorrhizae
heterokaryon
2 different nuclei obtained from fusing of mycelium
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
extend their branching hyphae through root cell wall and into tubes formed by pushing in of root cell membrane
soredia
small clusters of hyphae with embedded algae
yeasts
most common fungal body structures (multicellular filaments and single cells)
opisthokonts
organisms from an ancestor with posterior flagellum (includes fungi, animals, and some protists)
haustoria
specialized hyphae used to extract or exchange nutrients with hosts
deuteromycetes
yeasts and filamentous fungi that have no known sexual stage
chitin
strengthens fungal cell walls
mycorrhizae
fungus roots
karyogamy
stage in sexual cycle where haploid nuclei from two parents fuse making diploid cells
pheromones
sexual signaling molecules released from hyphae of two mycelia
asci
sac like spore located at tip of dikaryotic hypha of sac fungus
basidiocarps
fruiting bodies produced sexually by myceluim
septa
divisions or crosswalls of hyphae
coenocytic fungi
a continuous cytoplasmic mass that has hundreds or thousands of nuclei
chytrids
fungi classified in the phylum chytridiomycota found everywhere in lakes and soil
ascocarps
sexual stages in fruiting bodies which happen to most ascomycetes

Deck Info

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