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L9

Terms

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juxtaglomerular apparatus
this is the name for the point where the distal tubule and glomerulus meet
medulla
this is the lighter staining part of the kidney
converted to medullipin II in liver and vasodilates to lower BP
this is the path for activation of medullipin
highly impermeable to water (water doesn't go to CT), remove Na from filtrate and put it in extracellular CT
this is the function of the convoluted tubule
Bowman's space
this is the site of first urine production
loop of Henle, ascending limb
this is where water can enter the connective tissue from the filtrate
proximal tubule - straight portion
this is the thick portion of the descending loop of Henle
transitions from tall columnar (near bladder) to stratified squamous non-keratinized (near peehole)
describe the urethral epithelium
medullipin I
this hormone, made by the kidney, stimulates an decrease in blood pressure
released by the adrenal glands, it stimulates pumping Na into CT space, increases water resoprtion and blood pressure, and concentrates urine
this is the function of aldosterone
loop of Henle
this is where urea and penicillin enter the filtrate from the connective tissue
straight portion
this portion of the proximal tubule is located in the medullary rays and part of the loop of Henle
pedicels
these are the processes that come off the podocyte and form the filtration slits
outer circular, inner longitudinal muscle fibers
describe the muscularis layer of the renal pelvis
collecting tubule
this is where the distal convoluted tubule terminates
macula densa (which is ONLY in the distal tubule)
this is a dividing point between convoluted and straight parts of tubules
abdom aorta to renal artery to interlobar artery to arcuate artery (at cm junction) to interlobular artery
this is the blood supply pattern to for the kidneys
renal columns
these are cortical materials extending into the medulla between pyramids
into the interlobular veins
this is where the cortical labyrinth drains
cystitis
this is the name for infection of the bladder
several nephrons
these drain into a single cortical collecting tubule
erythopoietin, renin, medullipin I
these are the hormones that are secreted by the kidney
proximal tubule and distal tubule
this part of the nephron contains a straight and convoluted portion
there is 7x more proximal convoluted tubule in the cortex than there is distal convoluted tubule
compare the amount of convulted tubule in proximal tube with that of distal tube
resorb water from filtrate, transport Na and Cl from filtrate into extracellular space
this is the function of proximal tubule
proximal tubule
this is where ALL glucose, amino acids, proteins, and bicarbonate ions are reasborbed
several cortical collecting tubules
these drain into medullar collecting ducts
simple cuboidal acidophilic
this is the epithelium type of the straight portion of proximal tubule
vitamin D
this vitamin is partially formed by the kidney
cortical laybryinth
this is the location of the convulted portion of the distal tubule
loop of Henle
this part of the nephron has thick and thin segments, depending on the epithelium in its regions
urinary (renal) pole
this drains Bowman's space
the are cuboidal and contain principal and intercalated cells (and larger than corticle due to coalesce of several tubules)
these are the cell types of medullary collecting ducts
calcium phosphate, carbonate, and uric acid
these minerals form kidney stones
secreted by atrial myocytes, it lower blood pressure, causes excess urine production and increases glomerular filtration rate, inhibits aldosterone, ADH, and renin, and decreases Na resorption
this is the function of atrial natriuretic factor
contains many mitochondria and cells are connected by tight junctions and zonula occludens
these are some microscopic features of the distal tubule
filter out negatively charged ions and molecules
this is the function of the slit diaphragm
basal lamina
this layer of the filtration barrier contains collagen 4, perlecan, laminin, and fibronectin
trigone
this area of the bladder has a distinct embryological origin
nephron and collecting tubule
these components compose the urineferous tubule
renin
this hormone, made by the kidney, stimulates an increase in blood pressure
several medullar collecting ducts
these drain into the papillary ducts of Bellini, aka renal papillae
Bowman's capsule, proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule
these are the components of a nephron
simple squamous
this is the podocyte epithelium type
Peritubular Capillary Network
the efferent arterioles of the CORTICAL nephrons form this, which surrounds both tubules in the cortical labryinth
cortex of kidney
this part of the kidney contains renal corpuscles
simple cuboidal
this is the epithelium of cortical collecting ducts
vasa recta, which run down into the medulla and drain into the arcuate veins
the efferent arterioles of the JUXTAMEDULLARY nephrons form this
medulla in juxtamedullary nephrons, and in medullary rays of the cortex in cortical nephrons
this is the location of the straight portion of the distal tubule
1/4 of CO, or about 1200 mL/min to both
this is the cardiac output that goes to the kidney
visceral layer
this layer of the renal capsule contains podocytes
proximal and distal convulted tubules and the renal corpuscle
this is contained in the cortical labyrinth
parasympathetic
this type of innervation is responsible for contracting the detrusor and relaxing the internal sphincter
thick segments of loop of Henle and collecting ducts and thin segments
this is contained in the outer medullary zone
macula densa
this is the specialized portion of exclusively the distal tubule which comes back to touch the renal corpuscle
they pick up reabsorbed water and ions from the CT and return them back to the body
this is an important feature of the arcuate veins
mucosa, muscularis (detrusor muscle), and serous coat=adventitia
these are the layers of the wall of the bladder
mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia
these are the layers of the wall of the renal pelvis
Bowman's capsule, glomerulus
these are the components of the renal corpuscle
nephrotosis
this condition is known as floating kidney, in which the kidney drops into the pelvis due to deficient renal fascia
lacis cells
this is another name for extraglomerular mesangial cells
area cribosa
this is where papillary collecting ducts (of Bellini) open into the minor calyx
a smooth muscle layer
this helps the calyces move urine down the pelvis
contains microvili, has tesselated = interlocking lateral cellular processes, and numerous mitochondria
these are 3 microscopic features of the proximal tubule
these are modified smooth muscle cells that secrete renin
this is the function of juxtaglomerular cells of afferent arteriole
renin converts angiotensinogen of blood to angiotensinogen I- which is converted to II in the lungs- which vasoconstricts- up BP, up aldosterone release, up Na and Cl resorption
this is the path of renin activation
the apical tip of a renal pyrmaid, which is composed of medulla
this is known as a renal papillae
support cells
this is the function of extraglomerular mesangial cells
the corpuscle is nearer to the corticomedullar jx and the loop of Henle dives deep into the inner medulla
this is the corpuscle and loop of Henle location in a juxtamedullary nephron
proximal tubule
this is where glomerular filtrate is drained into
keep barrier sieve clean by phagocytosis
this is the function of intraglomerular mesangial cells
the corpuscle is in the outer portion of the nephron, and the loop of Henle is cortical (sometimes just barely in the outer medulla)
this is the corpuscle and loop of Henle location in a cortical nephron
simple cuboidal
this is the epithelium type of the distal tubule
straight portions of proximal and distal tubules as well as collecting tubules
this is contained in the medullary rays
also known as Bright's disease - bacterial toxins - makes barrier more permeable
this is the cause of glomerulonephritis
pyelonephritis
this is the name for inflammation of the renal pelvis
diabetes or glomerulonephritis
these illnesses may cause proteinuria
secreted by the parathyroid gland when too little Ca in blood, causes resorption of Ca and activates osteoclasts
this is the function of parathyroid hormone
ok joe!
NOTE THIS: that the cortex and medulla have different blood supplies
found in CT space between collecting ducts arranged like rungs of a ladder, they secrete medullipin I
this is the location and function of collecting duct interstitial cells
macula dense, juxtaglomerular cells of afferent arteriole, and extraglomerular mesangial cells
these are the components of teh juxtaglomerular apparatus
cortex
this is the darker staining material in the kidney
distal lumen is larger, pdistal diameter is smaller
compare the lumen and diameter of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules
parietal layer (strat squamous), Bowman's space, visceral layer
these are the layers of the renal capsule
monitor volume and Na concentration - tells JG to secrete renin when levels are low
this is the function of the macula densa
collecting ducts and thin segments of loop of henle
this is contained in the inner medullary zone
basal lamina
this layer of the filtration barrier is negatively charged and acts as a filter
concnetrates urine and reduces volume of urine
this is the function of antidiuretic hormone
fenestrated capillary without diaphragm, basal lamina, and podocytes
the filtration barrier between the blood and the glomerular filtrate consists of these structures
urethritis
this is the name for a urethra infection
simple squamous
this is the epithelium type for the thin segments in the loop of Henle
principal cells, with unknown fx, and intercalated cells, which are cuboidal and actively transport and secrete H+ ions against gradient
these are the cells types of the cortical collecting ducts

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