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K Final Study Guide


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longitudinal fissure
separates cerebral hemispheres
4. catalysts
increase rate of chemical reactions without themselves being changed in the reaction enzymes are biological catalysts
Sweat (sudoriferous) glands
eccrine & apocrine
Elastic Cartilage
similar to hyaline cartilage, with elastin fibers in matrix
dermal ridges on palms of hand & soles of feet form epidermal ridges
genetically determined pattern of ridges; leaves fingerprint
Nissl bodies (chromatophilic substance)
rough ER of neuron
anchor neurons to capillaries & aid in exchange & permeability
respond to chemicals in solution (molecules smelled, tasted; changes in blood pH, solutes)
stretches & distends urinary organ
sutural bones
small bones located within immoveable joints (sutures)
cerebrospinal fluid
formed by choroid plexuses hanging from the roof of the ventricles
a carrier protein
assists movement of molecules down concentration gradient, no energy is required
respond to light energy
Stratified Squamous Epithelial Tissue
multiple layers; basal layer cuboidal or columnar; carry out metabolism & mitosis; outer layers are keratinized
cerebral dominance
one hemisphere dominant for language (usually left)
nonciliated in male sperm-carrying ducts & ducts of large glands; ciliated type lines trachea & most of upper respiratory tract
Chapter 5
The Integumentary System
anterior, posterior & lateral columns
phospholipid bilayer
semipermeable and selectively permeable
DNA is
Composed of a sequence of four different nucleotides
each axon enclosed in
with myosin binding sites accessible on actin, activated myosin heads bind actin
(cross bridge attachment)
Chapter 15
The Special Senses
motor neurons activate
muscle contraction & glandular secretion
bundles of intermediate filaments (neurofilaments); maintain shape
sliding filament mechanism
during contraction, the thin filaments slide past the thick filaments so that actin & myosin overlap to a greater degree
Pagetps disease
excessive bone formation & breakdown
Microscopic structure of bone
no osteons; nutrients delivered by capillaries in endosteum
acetyl choline (ACh)
released at neuromuscular junctions (excitatory for skeletal muscle; inhibitory for cardiac muscle)
Protective Coverings of the Brain
cranium & cranial meninges
gray matter
mostly nerve cell bodies & unmyelinated fibers in CNS
color blindness
a congenital lack of one or more cone types
hair loss brought on by aging & hormones
3 connective tissue membranes just external to brain
memory storage occurs
in stages & is continually changing
carpal (wrist) bones (except pisiform, which is a sesamoid bone) & tarsal (ankle) bones (except calcaneus, which is an irregular bone)
the 4 nucleotide subunits of DNA are named
after the nitrogenous base each
Actin filaments combine with
myosin in muscle cells to enable muscle movement
movement of limb toward midline
Simple Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue
single layer of cube-shaped cells with large spherical nuclei
autonomic nervous system (ANS also involuntary nervous system)
visceral motor neurons that regulate activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & glands
Stratum Lucidum
a few rows of clear, flat dead keratinocytes
basal cells
stem cells; divide & differentiate into supporting cells
respond to internal stimuli in skeletal muscle, tendons, joints, ligaments & connective tissue surrounding muscles & bones
small ovoid cells with long; thorny; processes that contact neurons
Chapter 14
The Autonomic Nervous System
static equilibrium
maculae in the vestibule are sensory receptors for static equilibrium
fibrocartilage compressible
shock absorber, but limited movement; joints are amphiarthrotic
rRNA along with proteins comprise
the structure of the 2 subunits of the ribosome
striations result from
alternating dark A bands (thick filaments with overlapping thin filaments) & I bands (thin filaments) with central Z disc (connexin protein)
progressive weakening & deformity of bones (esp. spine, pelvis, femur & skull)
yellow-orange pigment found in plants (carrotsä)
deep sulci divide cerebral hemisphere into 5 lobes
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital & insula
plasma membrane of muscle
composed of tubulin dimers coiled into tubelike structures
Lactic acid build up in muscles
causes fatigue
deeper grooves separating larger regions of brain
tyrosine polymer; relies on enzyme tyrosinase in melanocytes
taste buds
about 10,000 in adult human; most on the tongue
irregular bones
complex shapes; donpt fit into other categories
Chapter 6
Bones & Skeletal Tissues
2. particle size
small molecules move faster (more (forceful) collisions)
under many epithelia (forms lamina propria); around organs & capillaries
a pressure gradient pushes solute-containing fluid (filtrate) from area of high pressure to area of low pressure
sensitive to stimuli arising outside body (touch, pressure, pain receptors)
One triglyceride
Glycerol + 3 fatty acids
rods & cones
sorts & edits sensory information & relays to appropriate area of sensory cortex & association areas
afferent fibers carrying taste information from the tongue
sympathetic division
mobilizes body systems (accelerates circulatory & respiratory systems, slows digestion) during emergency
calcium & vitamin D supplements & sunlight
Electrical energy
energy in the movement of charged particles
Smooth muscle tissue
occurs in walls of visceral organs (stomach, bladder), respiratory passageways & blood vessels
In infants, medullary cavity & all spongy bone have
red bone marrow
similar to hyaline cartilage, less firm with thick collagen fibers in matrix
myelinated fibers conduct impulses
Sensory (afferent) division
nerves that convey impulses to the CNS from sensory receptors
bulge of plasma membrane with nucleus & most of cytoplasm of Schwann cell just external to myelin sheath
gustatory (taste) cells
receptor cells with membranes with gustatory hairs that sense stimuli; contacted by dendrites of sensory neurons; replaced every 7-10 days
sensitive to stimuli arising outside body (internal viscera, blood vesselsä)
bone resorption outpaces bone deposit
large pyramidal tracts descending from motor cortex
brain, spinal cord & nerves
melanin (black), red iron-containing pigment & lipofuscin
sweat prevents overheating
regulated by sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system
Facilitated Diffusion
passage of small molecules (glucose, amino acids) across the plasma membrane even though they may not be lipid-soluble
Gene Expression
DNA is transcribed to RNA in the nucleus
DNA is organized into
distinct chromosomes
outer (external) ear
consists of the auricle (pinna) & the external auditory canal (travels from auricle to eardrum; ceruminous glands secrete earwax)
loss of electrons or H atoms
melanin from melanocytes in sclera
absorb light & prevent scattering
emotional brain
insufficient dietary calcium or vitamin D (helps to absorb dietary calcium from intestine)
Hinge Joints
cylindrical projection of one bone fits into trough-shaped surface on another (example; interphylangeal joints)
short bones
cube-shaped; spongy bone with thin outer layer of compact bone
bone cells in small cavities called lacunae
protects underlying tissues
Cardiac muscle tissue
occurs only in walls of heart
between diencephalon & pons
G2 stage
is also a growth stage in which metabolism provides new metabolites and energy for the mitotic division
butterfly-shaped gray matter surrounded by outer white matter
under skin, around kidneys & eyeballs, within abdomen, breasts
bony labyrinth
cavity within the temporal bone filled with perilymph & containing the membranous labyrinth
motor nuclei help regulate
skeletal & visceral muscle activity
2 monosaccharides joined by condensation
red nucleus
pigmented nucleus; rich blood supply & iron pigment; motor relay for limb flexion
absorption, secretion of mucus, enzymesä; ciliated propels mucus, reproductive cells
bones connected by ligament; immovable or slightly movable
sensed at posterior of tongue
ampullae contain equilibrium receptors called
crista ampullaris
gain of electrons or H atoms
visceral layer
covers & adheres to organs within cavity
axodendritic & axosomatic
most common also axoaxonic, dendrodendritic & dendrosomatic
weeping lubrication
fluid forced from cartilage during compression & soaked back up when pressure is relieved
white matter
myelinated fiber tracts in CNS
accumulates in stratum corneum & hypodermis; most evident in thick skin
Adenine and Guanine
purine bases, and have very similar structures
hard calcified matrix, many collagen fibers, well vascularized, osteocytes in lacunae
myelin sheath & neurilemma
myelin sheath (whitish protein-lipoid segmented sheath) formed by oligodendrocytes in CNS & Schwann cells in PNS; cells wrap themselves around axon of neuron
as myosin heads bind actin, they pivot as they change from
high-energy shape to low-energy shape, pulling thin filament toward center of sarcomere
many, including hormonal deficiencies (especially steroid hormone deficiency due to decline in old age), insufficient exercise, poor diet,ä
cranial bones, sternum & ribs, & scapulae (shoulder blades)
nonkeratinized type forms linings of esophagus, mouth & vagina; keratinized type forms epidermis of skin
Compact bone (lamellar bone)
units called osteons or Haversian systems
anterior 1/6 of fibrous tunic; transparent CT
Cranial Nerves
know names, #ps & basic functions
Diaphysis (shaft)
forms long axis of bone; thick collar of compact bone surrounding medullary (marrow) cavity
Spongy bone
trabeculae a few cell layers of irregularly arranged lamellae & osteocytes connected by canaliculi
damage (from stroke) paralyzes
muscles on side of body opposite that of lesion (only voluntary movement lost)
respond to touch, pressure (including blood pressure), vibration, stretch & itch
central (Haversian) canal
runs through center of osteon; carries blood vessels & nerve fibers
nonciliated in most of digestive tract, gallbladder & excretory ducts of some glands; ciliated in small bronchi, some regions of uterus
extracellular matrix ?
mostly adipose with some areolar connective tissue, insulates, absorbs shocks, & anchors skin loosely to muscles
respond to bright light; sharp, color vision
hair follicle
extends from epidermal surface to dermis or hypodermis
nail matrix cells produce
new growth
smaller version of lysosomes with specific enzyme activities
gray commissure
across center of gray matter; contains central canal; an open space continuous with the ventricles of the brain (arises from 4th ventricle)
Mechanical energy
energy used directly to move matter (used by muscle cells)
Pagetic bone
abnormally high ratio of spongy bone to compact bone
released from myosin head
3 regions
cerebral cortex (gray matter), white matter & basal nuclei
cardiac muscle
striated; involuntary, pacemaker cells set rate of contraction
lentiform nucleus
composed of putamen & globus pallidus
amino acids
GABA, glycine, aspartate, & glutamateä
the anterior wall of the middle ear contains an opening to the
auditory tube (leads to nasopharynx)
Transitional Epithelial Tissue
several layers; basal layer cuboidal or columnar; surface cells dome-shaped or squamous-like (depending on stretch)
rich supply of nerve fibers, blood vessels & lymphatic vessels
cerebral lobe buried deep within lateral sulcus
pia mater
innermost layer; just superior to cerebrum
ganglion cells
receive input from bipolar cells & their axons leave eye as optic nerve
can transform into phagocytic cells & engulf/break down bacteria & cell debris
extracellular matrix
(collagen or elastin fibers; calcium phosphate (bone) composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins & proteoglycans
postsynaptic neuron
transmits signal away from the synapse
is the study of tissues
transcription is carried out by
a 5p to 3p RNA Polymerase, as well as additional protein factors the result of these modifications is mature mRNA
The Skin (Integument)
composed of 2 regions:
calcitonin & drug therapy to prevent bone breakdown
In adults, red bone marrow in
the head of the femur & humerus, & diploe of flat bones & some irregular bones (hip bone)
substance P, endorphins & enkephalinsä
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
anchor cells to extracellular space & each other
anterior median fissure & posterior median sulcus
respond to temperature changes
internal skeleton for support of other cell types
middle layer; subarachnoid space contains large capillaries & CSF
is a more moderately branched polymer of glucose, and is the storage form of carbohydrates in plant cells
In adults, marrow cavity contains fat
yellow bone marrow cavity
Chapter 12
The Central Nervous System
glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX)
transmits impulses from taste buds on the posterior 1/3 of tongue
Axial Skeleton
80 bones
Radiant energy
energy that travels in waves (includes solar energy, light energy)
produce the fibrous protein keratin
pain when weight placed on bones
RNA also uses
4 nucleotide subunits; however, uracil (U) replaces thymine in RNA
Nucleic Acids
Nucleic Acids are polymers of nucleotide monomers
Ball & Socket Joints
spherical (ball-shaped) head of one bone fits into cuplike socket of another (example; shoulder & hip joints)
choroid plexus
secretes CSF
in kidney tubules, ducts of small glands, ovary surface
sarcoplasmic reticulum
smooth ER of muscle cells; store calcium
hair (pili)
flexible strands of mostly dead, keratinized cells
The Ear
Hearing & Balance
Plasma membrane
outer boundary of cells (except plant cells; also cell wall)
3 chambers
(scala vestibuli, scala media & scala tympani)
somatic reflexes
lead to contraction of skeletal muscles
vibrates with frequency of sound waves entering through external ear; transfers vibration to
ossicles of middle ear
Basal Nuclei (basal ganglia)
subcortical nuclei deep within cerebral white matter
Sympathetic division
fight or flight system activated during emergency or threatening/stressful situations; rapid heart & breathing rate, greatly decreased gastrointestinal & urinary tract activity, pupils dilated. Visceral blood vessels are constricted & blood is shunted to active skeletal muscles
fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells & white blood cells with collagen, elastin & reticular fibers
Thin skin has only
4 layers missing stratum lucidum; stratum corneum thinner
Rough ER
associated with ribosomes; proteins translated on ribosomes associated with the rough ER will be transported and/or secreted outside cell
filiform papillae
in center of tongue; no taste buds
sensed at anterior sides of tongue
Cell Cycle
Consists of Interphase and Mitosis
inner neural layer
outpocketing of brain; 3 main types of neurons:
somatic afferent fibers
convey impulses from skin, skeletal muscles & joints
Negative Feedback
the product or response shuts off or reduces the level of the original stimulus; the variable then changes in a direction opposite the initial change
Saddle Joints
resemble condyloid joints; each bone has concave & convex articular surfaces (like saddle); carpometacarpal joints); greater freedom of movement (example
muscle attempts to move a load requiring force greater than available
papillary layer
upper layer composed of areolar connective tissue
main visceral control center; controls homeostasis
sensory & visceral motor nuclei
(control heart rate & blood vessel diameter, breathing rate, vomiting, coughing)
coccygeal plexus
spinal nerves S4-Co; supplies small area of skin in coccygeal region
Surface Anatomy
the study of internal body structures as they relate to the body surface (skin)
biogenic amines
catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine & norepinephrine) & indolamines (histamine & serotonin)ä
disruption of specific 3D structure of a protein by increasing temperature (boiling) or changing pH
recognizes angry or fearful facial expressions, assesses danger & elicits fear response
Pivot Joints
rounded end of one bone protrudes into a bony ring/sleeve on another (example; atlas & axis articulation)
thick collagen fiber bundles form lines of cleavage (tension lines) in skin; used in surgery (incisions made parallel to lines to speed healing)
attaches muscles to bone & other muscles, attaches bones to bones; withstands high stress
semicircular canals
3 rounded tubes projecting from utricle through swellings called ampullae
The nucleus is bounded by a porous membrane
the nuclear envelope, which regulates passage of molecules into & out of the nucleus
perforating (Volkmannps) canal
at right angles to long axis; connect blood vessels & nerves of periosteum to those of central canals & medullary cavity
eccrine sweat glands (merocrine sweat glands)
far more numerous; most abundant on palms of hands, soles of feet & forehead
outermost cells
dead & keratinized; lifespan of 25-45 days
medulla oblongata
most inferior part of brain stem; blends with spinal cord
the hippocampus of the limbic system & surrounding structures play roles in
memory processing
flat & spiny (prickle cells)
presynaptic neuron
conducts impulses toward synapse
types of hairs
short, fine vellus hairs; longer, coarser terminal hair
control chemical environment surrounding neurons
clean up potassium ions & neurotransmitters
During anemia (blood cell deficiency), yellow marrow can revert to
red marrow
maintains shape while adding flexibility
primary (somatic) motor cortex
pyramidal cells; large neurons allow precise control over voluntary skeletal muscle movement; form pyramidal (corticospinal) tracts
red blood cells (erythrocytes) & white blood cells (leukocytes) in fluid matrix (plasma)
peg in socket joint; only example is tooth in bony alveolar socket
unknown, may be viral
decreases angle of joint & brings bones closer together
transverse fissure
separates cerebral hemispheres from cerebellum
nodes of Ranvier
gaps in myelin sheath between adjacent Schwann cells
Functions in maintaining shape of cell and movement of subcellular structures
between bones of the skull
Examples of negative feedback mechanisms
regulation of body temperature, the withdrawal reflex, regulation of blood glucose levels by the hormones insulin & glucagon
ureters, bladder & part of urethra
Chemical energy
energy in the bonds of chemicals
increases angle of joint & moves bones away from each other
covers abdominal viscera within abdominal cavity
foliate papillae
along both sides of tongue towards posterior
Plane Joints
flat articular surfaces, allow only short slipping or gliding movements (example; joints between vertebral articular processes)
dynamic equilibrium
the crista ampullaris in the ampullae of the semicircular canals is the receptor for dynamic equilibrium
cushions organs; many immune cells regulate immunity
star-shaped; most abundant & versatile glial cells
aging pigment (accumulates in elderly)
each taste bud has
40-100 epithelial cells of 3 types
white matter
nerve fibers allow communication between different parts of spinal cord & between spinal cord & brain
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
nerves that extend from the CNS (outside the CNS)
moving head backwards beyond straight
turning of bone around its long axis
tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses
Inorganic Molecules
Molecules that do not contain carbon and hydrogen (e.g.; salts, strong acids and bases, metal compounds)
supporting cells
most cells within taste bud; insulate receptor cells
covers trabeculae of spongy bone & canals of compact bone
vagus nerve (cranial nerve X)
transmits impulses from a few taste buds on the epiglottis & pharynx
Motor (efferent) division
transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs (muscles & glands)
Langerhansp cells (epidermal dendritic cells)
macrophages; part of immune system
the capacity to do work
white of eye
transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors to effectors
Stratum Corneum
outermost layer; 20-30 cell layers thick
visual pigments of rods & cones are a combination of
retinal (a vitamin A derivative) & opsins (pigmented proteins)
the study of microscopic body structures
long bones
have greater length than width; consist of diaphysis (shaft) & epiphyses; slightly curved to absorb stress
joint (synovial) cavity
potential space with synovial fluid
secretion & absorption
in blood vessels
Aerobic respiration
yields 36 or 38 ATP per glucose
parathyroid hormone (PTH, from parathyroid gland)
stimulates osteoclasts to resorb bone to raise blood calcium levels
flat bones
thin; composed of 2 parallel plates of compact bone enclosing a layer of spongy bone
bones are inadequately mineralized (osteoid not calcified)
Each amino acid has a central carbon bonded to
an amino group, a carboxylic acid group, a hydrogen atom, and the remaining side chain (R group); it is the R group that differs in different amino acids the R groups do not normally bond between amino acids (the exception is cysteine, which forms disulfide (S-S) bonds within and between polypeptide chains for added strength
inferior colliculi
auditory relay
outer pigmented layer
a single cell layer thick; contains phagocytic pigmented epithelial cells that absorb light & prevent scattering
inorganic component
hydroxyapatites (mineral salts); mostly calcium phosphates
Spongy bone (cancellous bone)
trabeculae; needle-like or flat pieces internal to compact bone; spaces between trabeculae filled with red or yellow bone marrow
Regional Anatomy
the study of groups of structures in specific body regions
Stratum Granulosum
3-5 cell layers thick; cells contain granules
Serous membranes
thin 2-layered membranes with fluid-filled space that covers the viscera within thoracic & abdominal cavities and lines walls of thorax & abdomen
3. concentration
usually increased reactant concentrations increases rate (more collisions)
snail-shaped chamber extending from the saccule
Reticular Connective Tissue
reticular fiber network in loose ground substance; reticular cells
corpora quadrigemina
midbrain nuclei
brachial plexus
cranial nerves C5-T1; supplies shoulders & upper limbs
Merkel cells
associate with disclike sensory nerve endings to form Merkel disc; a sensory receptor for touch
superior colliculi
visual reflex centers
(contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms)
processes information from cerebral motor cortex & from sensory pathways and sends instructions to cerebral motor cortex & motor centers to regulate balance, posture & coordinated skeletal muscle movement
DNA Synthesis
DNA replication is carried out by the enzyme DNA Polymerase, as well as some additional protein factors
like cytoplasm of normal cell; contains many glycosomes (store glycogen) & myoglobin (carries & stores oxygen)
Spinal Nerves
31 pairs
protects cell nucleus from UV light-induced mutations; UV repair mechanisms may stimulate synthesis
bones joined by hyaline cartilage; almost always synarthrotic
inflammation/infection can lead to
secrete sweat
hypotonic blood filtrate 99% water with salts, vitamin C, antibodies, metabolic wastes & lactic acid
maculae respond to
vertical & side-to-side head movements
middle ear (tympanic cavity)
small air-filled cavity within temporal bone lined with mucosa & flanked by the eardrum & 2 openings (oval (vestibular) window & round (cochlear) window)
corpus striatum
composed of lentiform nucleus & caudate nucleus
cilia circulate CSF (CSF is secreted by capillaries of choroids plexuses
interstitial lamellae
partially formed fill gaps or have been replaced
Chromosomes move toward opposite poles of the cell due to disassembly of spindle fibers
Nervous Tissue
neurons & supporting cells
support, levers for muscles, calcium storage, blood cell formation (hematopoiesis) in marrow
melanin from melanocytes at base of follicle produces
central core of forebrain; surrounded by cerebral hemispheres
ceruminous glands
modified apocrine glands in the external ear canal
Central Nervous System (CNS)
brain & spinal cord
Chapter 2
Chemistry Comes Alive
Chapter 3
Cells; The Living Units
highly vascular dark brown membrane; blood vessels supply nutrients to all tunics
wrap processes around thicker neurons of CNS; produce myelin sheath of CNS neurons
RNA is synthesized from 1 strand of DNA
houses hair follicles, oil & sweat (sudoriferous) glands
Muscle metabolism
muscles need constant supply of ATP
Stratified Columnar Epithelial Tissue
several layers; basal layer usually cuboidal
periosteum covers entire surface of bone except joint surfaces
unmyelinated fibers conduct impulses
calcium binds to
TnC, which changes shape & moves tropomyosin away from myosin binding sites on actin
motor (efferent) nerves
carry impulses away from CNS
line central cavities of brain & spinal cord, between tissue fluid of interneuronal space & cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within cavities
cingulate gyrus
regulation of expression of emotions & feelings of frustration
Exergonic reactions
release energy
articular cartilage
hyaline cartilage protects bone ends
central region composed of 2 sacs; the saccule & utricle
Cartilagenous Joints
bones joined by cartilage; no joint cavity
tensile strength, absorbs shock
femur, tibia & fibula, humerus, radius & ulna & phalanges of fingers & toes
Synovial Joints
bones separated by fluid-containing joint cavity
Sensory Receptors
specialized to respond to changes (stimuli) in environment
male urethra & some large ducts of glands
circumferential lamellae
extend around all osteons within shaft (just deep to periosteum)
sensory tunic (retina)
consists of 2 layers:
between midbrain & medulla oblongata
Stratum Spinosum
several layers thick; interrupted by dermal papillae
skeletal muscle cells
long (hundreds of cm) & wide; multinucleate, composed of thin filaments (actin, tropomyosin & troponin complex) & thick filaments (myosin)
arrector pili muscle
smooth muscle bundle that contracts to raise hair
underlying layer composed of fibrous connective tissue; vascularized
Chapter 1
The Human Body; An Orientation
Chapter 9
Muscles & Muscle Tissue
embryonic skeleton, covers long bones in joints, costal cartilage of ribs, cartilage of nose, trachea & larynx
microbodies that contain enzymes for oxidizing certain organic molecules with the release of hydrogen peroxide (toxic, but breaks down into water & oxygen)
Chromosomes align at metaphase plate attached to kinetochore spindle fibers
Condyloid (Ellipsoidal) Joints
oval articular surfaces of one bone fit into depression of another (example; radiocarpal joints)
is an unbranched polymer of glucose, with adjacent chains held together by hydrogen bonds, giving it a very rigid structure. It is the major structural component of plant cell walls
regulate motor control (muscle movements, & perhaps also attention & cognition)
intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, knee joint discs
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelial Tissue
single layer of mostly column-shaped cells with different heights (some donpt reach apical surface) & nuclei at different levels; some have cilia; may include goblet cells
Mature mRNA is
translated to protein in the cytoplasm (at the ribosomes)
Thick skin has
5 layers (strata) Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum & stratum corneum
Gross (Macroscopic) Anatomy
the study of large (readily visible) body structures (heart, lungs, kidneys)
nerve impulse leads to
depolarization & calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum
is single-stranded
parietal layer
lines walls of cavity
contains cochlear duct housing the
organ of Corti, which contains receptors for hearing
autonomic (visceral) reflexes
lead to responses from smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & glands
external ear (pinna), epiglottis
premotor cortex
controls learned repetitious or patterned motor skills (playing musical instrument, typing) & helps in planning movements
Isometric contractions
muscle neither shortens nor lengthens
Anaerobic glycolysis & lactic acid formation
2 ATP yield per glucose
on tail of caudate nucleus; part of limbic system
diffusion & filtration; secretes lubricating substances in serosae
simple sugars with a backbone of 3 to 7 carbon atoms
vertebrae, coxal (hip) bone, calcaneus (heel bone), & some facial bones
composed of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and actin filaments
Skeletal muscle tissue
attach to & cover bony skeleton
Most taste buds are located within papillae
(projections of the tongue mucosa)
Within each nucleolus, ribosomal RNA is
produced and joins with ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes
elevated ridges of brain tissue, separated by shallow grooves called sulci
respond to pain from potentially damaging stimulus
substantia nigra
pigmented nucleus; contains melanin, a precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine
scalelike epidermal modifications at dorsal surface of distal region of fingers & toes
memory involves
the storage & retrieval of information
Salutatory conduction
the presence of the myelin sheath insulates against leakage of charge & only allows generation of action potential at nodes of Ranvier between adjacent Schwann cells (or oligodendrocytes)
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
M stage
Parasympathetic division
resting & digesting system low energy use (low blood pressure, heart rate & respiratory rate), active digestion of food & elimination of waste; pupils of eyes are constricted & lenses accommodated for close vision
ends of bone; often more expanded than diaphysis; outer compact & internal spongy bone
vascular tunic (uvea)
3 regions:
connected to pituitary gland by stalk called infundibulum
Broca's area
in one hemisphere only (generally left)
sensed at middle sides of tongue
bundles of fascicles enclosed in
respond to dim light; blurry shades of gray
ducts empty into hair follicles
in addition to components of sweat, secretion contains lipid & proteins
subcutaneous layer just deep to the dermis
stores genetic information in all eukaryotic cells
Plant cells divide using
a cell plate to allow formation of a new plasma membrane and cell wall between the two new cells. Cell wall is too rigid for cleavage furrow
covers lungs within pleural cavities
sensed at anterior tip of tongue
movement of limb away from midline
A sarcomere
is the region of a myofibril between adjacent Z discs
Proteins are composed of chains of amino acid monomers
Retrograde amnesia
loss of memories formed in the distant past
secrete cerumen (earwax)
deters insects & blocks foreign material
Connective Tissue
most abundant primary tissue
bundles of fibers (fascicles) enclosed in
consists of G1, S, and G2 stages.
chromatin condenses and the nuclear membrane begins disintegration. Mitotic spindle begins to assemble from microtubules in centrosomes, where centrioles form short asters prior to formation of spindle fibers.
inner ear (labyrinth)
consists of bony labyrinth & membranous labyrinth
secrete sebum (rich in oils)
into hair follicle (or pore) bacteriocidal; lubricates hair & skin
anterior, posterior & lateral horns contain
the cell bodies of somatic motor neurons, autonomic sensory neurons & autonomic motor neurons, respectively
The 2 strands (nucleotide chains) of the double helix
dura mater
outer layer
Simple Columnar Epithelial Tissue
single layer of column-shaped cells with oval nuclei; some have cilia or microvilli; may include goblet cells
Ground Substance
fills space between cells & contains fibers
contains equilibrium receptors for balance called
collections of neuron cell bodies associated with nerves in PNS
protects skin with keratin & thick plasma membranes; glycolipids
prevent water loss
circumvallate (vallate) papillae
form an inverted V at the back of the tongue; 7-12 with ~250 taste buds each
spider-shaped cells that produce the pigment melanin
Plantar flexion
depressing foot
stapes (stirrup)
attaches to oval window of vestibule
a nucleotide
a pentose sugar + a phosphate + a nitrogenous (nitrogen-containing) base
Chapter 4
Tissue; The Living Fabric
special motor speech area
controls muscles of tongue, throat & lips during (& possibly in planning of) speech
Appendicular Skeleton
126 bones
DNA forms
a double-helical structure (DNA is double-stranded)
malleus (hammer)
attaches to eardrum
Outer boundary of cells
functions in regulation of passage of molecules into and out of the cell
sesamoid bones
sesame shaped bones that develop in tendons to protect against friction & stress
Organic Molecules
Carbon-based molecules
fovea centralis
only cones present; region of greatest visual acuity
calcitonin (from parafollicular (C) cells of thyroid)
inhibits osteoclasts & stimulates calcification of bone matrix to lower blood calcium levels
connect lacunae to each other & central canal
superior part of brain 83% of total brain mass
Chapter 13
The Peripheral Nervous System & Reflex Activity
dorsal to pons & medulla; inferior to occipital lobes
trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) does not innervate taste buds, bud
transmits impulses from nociceptors that discriminate texture in foods, as well as hot/cold & spicy foods
Systemic Anatomy
the gross anatomy of organ systems is studied
Kinetic energy
energy of motion
ependymal cells
shape varies from squamous to columnar; many are ciliated
Chapter 10
The Muscular System
transports oxygen & carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes & other substances
filters out repetitive stimuli
dendrites & axons; extend from cell body
parasympathetic division
generally opposite of sympathetic responses conserves energy, promotes nonemergency functions (digestion)
rods use
rhodopsin (deep purple pigment)
tracts cross over to opposite side before entering spinal cord
cerebral hemispheres control voluntary movements of muscles on opposite side of body
also known as the involuntary nervous system (subconscious control) & the general visceral motor system
Direct phosphorylation
creatine phosphate converted to creatine by creatine kinase phosphate released added to ADP to form ATP
reticular layer
lower layer (most of thickness of dermis); composed of dense irregular connective tissue
Autonomic Nervous System
system of motor neurons within the motor division of the peripheral nervous system that innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & glands.
Oxygen debt
need additional oxygen to oxidize & remove lactic acid from muscle cells
Chromosomes are at opposite poles of the cell; nuclear envelope reforms around each set of chromosomes, and spindle disappears. Cytokinesis beginsä
pineal gland
secretes hormone melatonin; helps in regulation of sleep-wake cycle
corneal epithelium
2layers stratified squamous epithelium on outside with deep simple squamous epithelial tissue
moving a limb so that it describes a cone in space
tropomyosin covers
myosin binding sites on actin molecules in resting muscle
junction that mediates transfer of information from neuron to neuron or effector (muscle, gland)
1. temperature
molecules move faster as the temperature is increased (increases collisions) moderate temperature is best; high temperatures often denature (inactivate) enzymes
Angular movements
increase or decrease angle between 2 bones
lies between cornea & lens; has round central opening called pupil
Endergonic reactions
require (absorb) energy
melanin granules
protect the cell nucleus from UV radiation
outermost layer composed of epithelial cells
conduction tracts (pons
bridge); complete pathways between higher brain centers & spinal cord; relays between motor cortex & cerebellum
sacral plexus
spinal nerves L4-S4; supplies buttocks, perineum & lower limbs
Adipose Connective Tissue
closely packed adipocytes (fat cells with large fat droplet)
lamellated granules
contain waterproofing glycolipid; released into extracellular space to prevent water loss
dermal papillae
projections that indent the epidermis; contain capillary loops & touch receptors (Meissnerps corpuscles)
lumbar plexus
spinal nerves L1-L4; supplies anterior abdominal wall, external genitals & part of lower limbs
immovable joints (suturesä)
Potential energy
stored energy that is available to do work
slightly movable joints (symphysesä)
in kidney glomeruli, air sacs of lungs, heart lining, blood vessels & lymphatic vessels, lining of ventral body cavity
Hematopoiesis occurs in
red marrow (in cavities of spongy bone of long bones & diploe of flat bones)
Chapter 8
overactivity leads to
cones use 3 different types of opsins to yield
red cones green cones blue cones
Chapter 7
The Skeletal System
Cerebral Cortex
conscious mind; awareness, communication, memory & understanding & initiation of voluntary movements
keratohyaline granules
help in keratin formation
Chapter 11
The Nervous System & Nervous Tissue
calcium & vitamin D supplement, & hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
oxygenated hemoglobin in dermal capillaries gives fair skin a pinkish color
support, cushioning, resists stress
Hyaline Cartilage
amorphous firm matrix; collagen fibers form glassy (invisible) network; chondrocytes in lacunae
Animal cells divide by means of a
cleavage furrow
flexure lines
dermal folds near joints
chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII)
transmits impulses from taste buds at the anterior 2/3 of tongue
Late Prophase
chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers, and are moved toward the center of the cell (metaphase plate). Spindle fibers attach to the kinetochores (attachment point of centromeres) of duplicated chromosomes. Nuclear membrane completes disintegration.
damage results in loss of
learned skills, but movement of muscles is often still possible
articular capsule
external fibrous capsule (dense irregular CT) & internal synovial membrane (loose CT)
RNA does not form
a double helix (no pairing of complementary bases between 2 strands)
fungiform papillae
most numerous type; found scattered over the surface of the tongue, but most at the tip & along sides
Compact bone
dense outer layer of bone
Sebaceous (oil) glands
simple alveolar glands (holocrine glands); located all over body except palms of hand & soles of feet
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
dense (primarily) parallel collagen fibers, few elastin fibers; fibroblasts
cervical plexus
cranial nerves C1-C5; supplies skin & muscles of head, neck & superior part of shoulders & chest
smooth muscle
forces fluids & other substances through body channels, nonstriated; involuntary, slow & sustained contractions
freely movable joints (most joints)
bipolar cells
link between photoreceptors & ganglion cells
lymphoid organs
tRNA molecules carry
amino acids to the ribosome during translation (a tRNA for each amino acid)
peripheral nerves classified as
spinal nerves or cranial nerves
strong, flexible connective tissue
S phase
is the synthesis stage of the cell cycle, when the DNA is replicated.
myosin composed of
long central tails & laterally oriented heads (cross-bridges) that bind actin
G1 stage
is a growth (formerly gap) stage during which the organelles increase in number to produce enough for two new cells
plays a role in storing information in long-term memory
somatic nervous system (voluntary nervous system)
somatic motor neurons that conduct impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles
visceral afferent fibers
convey impulses from visceral organs (organs of ventral body cavity)
ciliary body
contains smooth muscle bundles (ciliary muscles) that control lens shape
mixed nerves
contain both sensory & motor fibers (can be somatic &/or autonomic fibers)
4 types of papillae
lumbosacral plexus
lower limb; branches to pelvis, abdomen & buttocks
apocrine sweat glands
mostly confined to axillary & anogenital regions
dermis of skin, digestive submucosa, fibrous capsules of organs & joints
pupil opens & closes to
control light entry into eye; controlled by smooth muscle in iris
blind spot (optic disc)
location on retina where the optic nerve exits eye
Simple Squamous Epithelial Tissue
single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped nuclei & little cytoplasm
cell body (perikaryon or soma)
contains nucleus & most organelles (no centrioles)
articular surfaces of bone covered with hyaline cartilage fused to plate of fibrocartilage
Intermediate Filaments and actin filaments
have structural roles throughout the cell
each hemisphere gas unique abilities
Skin Color
dictated by 3 pigments; melanin, carotene, & hemoglobin
troponin complex consists of
TnI (inhibits actin), TnT (binds tropomyosin & positions it on actin) & TnC (binds calcium to start contraction)
membranous labyrinth
floats in perilymph within bony labyrinth; filled with fluid called endolymph
cylinder oriented parallel to long axis of bone; within each cylinder is tubes (concentric circles) of bone matrix (lamellae)
pure taste sensations are grouped into
4 types
the study of the structure of body parts & their relationship to one another
tympanic membrane (eardrum)
boundary between outer & middle ear
reticular activating system
maintains cerebral cortical alertness
Know the location of each of the following. Also know the subdivisions where appropriate (for example
the pleural cavity is within the thoracic cavity, which in turn is within the ventral body cavity).
fibrous tunic
dense, avascular CT; 2 regions:
thick skin
has accelerated cell division & keratinization
meet skin at folds of skin called
nail folds & cuticle
Stratum Basale (Stratum Germinativum)
basal layer; deepest epidermal layer firmly attached to dermis
Areolar Connective Tissue
gel-like matrix with all 3 fiber types; fibroblasts, mast cells, macrophages & some white blood cells
the study of the function of the bodyps structural machinery
Smooth ER
synthesizes phospholipids in all cells; various other cell type-specific functions
lifting foot
protection, secretion
Cytosine and Thymine
are pyrimidine bases, and have very similar structures
Reticular Formation
extends through core of brainstem
Isotonic contractions
muscle changes in length & moves load
each base always pairs with its complement, so that the second strand of the double helix can be deduced, and synthesized in the cell, by simply pairing complementary bases
Contraction of Skeletal Muscle Fiber
activation of myosinps cross bridges
Anterograde amnesia
ability to associate new information with old is lost; person lives in here & now, but can still learn skills
Chemical composition of bone
calcium salt crystals pack around collagen fibers in matrix
skull bones, auditory ossicles (ear bones), hyoid bone, ribs, sternum (breastbone) & vertebral column (backbone)
secretion & propulsion of mucus
brain stem
(midbrain, pons & medulla oblongata)
contractile elements of skeletal muscle
sensory (afferent) nerves
carry impulses toward CNS
located in deepest layer of epidermis; melanosomes
in melanocyte processes transfer melanin to keratinocytes
cushions organs; reserve food fuel, insulation
withstands tension, adds structural strength
synovial fluid
occupies free spaces in joint cavity; reduces friction
is the genetic material of the cell (inherited from parents)
sensory neurons link
body parts to CNS
cordlike organ of PNS consisting of bundles of axons enclosed in layers of connective tissue
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
irregular shaped collagen fibers, few elastin fibers; fibroblasts
covers heart within pericardial cavity
Epithelial Tissue (epithelium)
a sheet of cells that lines a body cavity or covers a body surface
excitation of photoreceptors occurs following
a chain of reactions initiated by the isomerization (structural change) of retinal & detachment of retinal from opsin (bleaching of the pigment) after being struck by light
the 4 bases are
adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), & thymine (T)
Fibrous Joints
bones joined by fibrous tissue; no joint cavity
is the study of cells
Limbic System
regions of the medial aspects of each cerebral hemisphere & diencephalons encircling brain stem (limbus; ring) & linked by the fornix
organic component
cells (osteocytes, osteoblasts & osteoclasts) & osteoid (organic matrix ground substance & collagen fibers)

Deck Info