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health promotion exam1


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an idea, thought, or notion conceived in the mind
a healthy, more or less stable, physiologic state in which there is no undue imbalance
world health organization
a broad outline of what needs to be done to achieve health for individuals, families, or communities
health goals
the knowledge and experience of one's state of wellness and well being
health perception
the advancement of health through the encouragement of activities that enhance the wellness of individuals, families, or communities
health promotion
Incidence of disease in a population, including both fatal and nonfatal cases
a state of optimal health or optimal physical and social functioning
a specific disorder characerized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms, attributable to heredity, infection, diet, or environment
all care necessary to people's lives and health, including health education, nutrition, sanitation, maternal and child health care, immunizations,etc...
primary health care
actions that are considered true prevention because they precede disease or dysfunction and are applied to clients considered physically/emotionally healthy to protect them from health problems
primary prevention
actions that focus on the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of people with health problems or illnesses and who are at risk for developing complications or worsening conditions
secondary prevention
minimizing effects of a permanent, irreversible disease or disability through interventions...
tertiary prevention
sudden onset and a short duration
illness (acute)
condition that lasts 6 months or longer. Some may still describe themselves as healthy
illness (chronic)
Incidence of disease in population
a behavior or group of behaviors, chosen by the person, that may have either a positive or negative influence on health
the conviction that one can successfully execute a behavior required to produce desired outcomes
factors in the internal or external environment that increase the vulnerability of a person, family, or community to an unhealthful state or event
risk factors
the cause of a disease is its...
WHO international goals card 1
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, Achieve universal
primary education,Promote gender equality and empower women
WHO international goals card 2
Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health, Combat HIV/AIDS/malaria, Ensure environmental sustainability, Develop a global partnership for development
Healthy People 2010 goals for the U.S.
Increase Quality/Years of Healthy Life,Eliminate Health Disparities,
A pattern in which the individual experiences or is at risk for experiencing difficulty integrating into daily living a program for treatment of illness and the sequelae of illness that meets specfic health goals
Ineffective therapeutic regimen management (individuals, family, or community)
The state in which an individual or group desires to comply, but factors are present that deter adherence to health goals.
A pattern in which the individual integrates into daily living a program for treatment of illness and its sequelae that is satisfactory for meeting health goals
effective therapeutic regimen management (individual)
The state in which an individual or group experiences uncertainty about a course of action when the choice of options invlves risk, loss, or challenge to personal life values.
Decisional conflict
What is the foundation for preventing chronic deseases?
healthy lifestyle choices
...refers to the objective interpretation of health by a scientifically trained practitioner
Etic dimension
...refers to an individual's or social group's subjective perception/experiences related to health
Emic Dimension
Learned/shared/transmitted values/beliefs/norms/lifeways of a particular group that guides their thinking/ decisions/actions in patterned ways
A important because ideas related to health/illness originate from everyday experiences/family/ social network/community
Type of illness in folk medicine that relates to events that have to do w/ the world as God made it or as God intended it
Natural Illnesses
type of illness in folk medicine related to events that cause disharmony with nature
unnatural illnesses
Type of care that is provided in dyads
health care (nurse-client or doctor-client)
type of care provided from a multiperson perspective
folk (including relatives/ non-relatives) a human behavior framework designed to explain a person's intention to perform a behavior. The theory is based on the assumption that people are reasonable and, in deciding which actions to take, systematically process and use the information avai
Theory of reasoned action
...does not rely soley on facts and logic. It also considers the relations between beliefs, attitudes, and intention in determining behavior
Theory of Reasoned Action
theoretical model for behvior change that provides stages of change in behavior
transtheoretical model for behavioral change
person does not intend to change a high-risk behavior in the foreseeable future (the next 6 months)person may agree to make changes under pressure
precontemplation stage
the person intends to change w/in 6 mo. Person usually stays in this stage for 2yrs
contemplation stage
person intends to take action in the very near future, usually w/in the next month. person evaluates pros/cons
preparation stage
person changes risky behaviors and the context of the behavior (environment/ experience) and makes significant efforts to reach goals.This is the busiest but most risky stage
action stage
takes place during the 6 mo.s after the person changes risky behavior. Continuing period of change
maintenance stage. Period lasts 5 years
person is no longer tempted to engage in the old behavior
termination stage
this theory explains why some people take specific actions to avoid or treat illness/other fail to protect themselves
the health belief model
explains health behavior on the basis of the value-expectancy theory and Kurt Lewin's cognitive theory
health belief model
theorist who conceptualized hat certain asp;ects of a person's life space have negative, positive, or neutral values.
kurt lewin
The four components of the health beief model
percieved suceptibility, percieved severity, percieved benefits, and percieved barriers
Refers to a person's subjective perception of the risk of contracing a health condition
perceived susceptibility
refers to the perceived seriousness of contracting an illness or leaving it untreated
perceived severity
refers to the person's perceptions and beliefs about the effectiveness of the recommended actions in preventing the health threat.
percived benefits
refers to perceived negative aspects of a health action or the perceived impediments to undertaking the recommended behaviors
percieved barriers
the convition that one can successfully execute the behavior required to produce the outcomes
self-efficacy judgements are based on what four sources of information?
1)the individual's own performance accomplishments 2)vicarious obervation of the performance of others 3)influence of external persuasion 4)states of emotional arousal
describes the multidimensional nature of a person's interactions with the environment in the ursuit of health
health promotion model
suggests that behavior is rational and economical. People will not waste time on behavior changes that have little value to them
value-expectancy theory
focuses on the person's beliefs interacting w/ environmental influences
social cognitive theory
....medicine is an example of a system of medicine that encompasses the whole lifestyle
what are the accidents that are most likely to cause death
motor vehicle accidents and falls
what group of people are most often affected by falls?
older people
what pathophysiologic changes of older adults place them at the biggest risk for falls?
altered gait, decreased mobility, incontinence, and confusion
What is the biggest concern for older adults who fall?
hip fractur
fatal falls that have happened in the hospital setting account for what percentage of all fatal falls?
In what situation is a client most likely to fall in a hospital?
while trying to get to the bathroom unassisted
....refers to an interruption in breathing that results from a severe lack of oxygen
...inspiration of foreign bodies into the airway
an internal obstruction of the airway by food or a foreign body
choking the constriction of airways by an external source
In an older adult or neurologically impaired client..... and/or .....can result from the loss or absence of protective airway reflxes
choking and aspiration
.... and ... also can occur in clients who are unconcious or when a nonfunctioning nasogastric tube allows gastric contents to drain around the tube
Accidental drowning would be considered.....
asphyxiation at risk for injury as a result of environmental conditions interacting w/ the individual's adaptive and defensive resources
risk for injury accentuated risk for accidental tissue injury
risk for trauma accentuated risk for accidental exposure to or ingestion of, drugs or dangerous prducts in doses sufficient to cause poisoning
risk for poisoning accentuated risk for accidental suffocation (inadequate air available for inhalation)
risk for suffocation at risk for entry of gastrointestinal secretions, oropharyngeal secretions, or solids or fluids into tracheobronchial passages
risk for aspiration
what is the 3rd most common death among adolescents?
where does drowing occur in ghildren under 1 years old?
for children aged 1-4, what is the most common site of drowning?
residential swimming pools
what is the usual site of adolescent drowning?
lakes and other natural bodies of water clinically defined as an adverse condition or physical state resulting from the administration or ingestion of a toxic substance
poisoning the leading cause of years of potential life lost and the 4th leading cause of death in the US
who is especially at risk for fire related injuries?
institutionalized individuals
house fire deaths rates are highest for ...
children younger than 5 and adults older than 65
most house fire deaths result from what?
poisoning effects of smoke inhalation rather than from burn injuries
the most common cause of house-fire deaths is...
cigarette smoking
the most common cause of house fires (not housefire deaths) is..
cooking and heating equipment clinically defined as any injury caused by excessive exposure to electricity, chemicals, gases, radioactivity or thermal agents
a burn
people at highest risk for burns are...
children 14 and younger, the handicapped, and oder adults w/ sensory impairents
risk for developing fetus
maternal exposure to smoke, maternal use of alcohol or drugs, x-rays received during first trimester, exposure to certain pesticides
risk for the newborn
falling, suffocating in crib, choking or aspiration of formula, burns (esp. w/ bath water), injuries in car accidents, injuries in crib or playpen
risks for infant or toddler
physical trauma from falling, banging into objects, falling down stairs, being cut, injuries in cars, burns, poisoning, drowning, electric shock from outlets
risk for preschool and school aged child
injuries in cars, injuries on playground equipment, choking, suffocation, obsruction of airways or ears, poisoning, drowning, electrical shock
risk for adolecents
sports injuries, car accidents, drug/alcohol use
risk for older adults
falls, burns, pedestrian, and car accidents
risk for all ages
what factors can greatly increase the likelyhood for adolescent risks for injury?
need for independnce, peer pressure, and the high-risk behaviors common in this age-group
in adults, what increases the likelyhood for injury?
what is the key element of a safety assessment?
what are some examples of objective data that could be gathered to assess a client's saftey?
muscle str., joint range of motion, gait, pulse, results of diagnostic tests, radiographic evidence, skin color, skin turgor, and posture
what would you do to assess the general category of risk for injury?
observe the client's physical and psychological status and elements of the environment that are unsafe
what are some internal risk factors for injury?
biophysical, physical, and psychological
what are some external risk factories for injury?
biological, chemical, physical, and people/provider
what nursing diagnosis is helpful in the clinical setting where you can protect clients from a broad array of risk?
risk injury
which nursing diagnosis is more often used in the community setting where you would be helping to prevent accidents in individuals or groups of clients?
risk for trauma
to maintain a person's orientation, do this...
provide information about time, person, place and environment at regular intervals
what action can be taken to keep a client oriented?
use clocks, calendars, and family pictures
how often should totally dependant clients be monitored?
at least once per hour
what is the primary use of restraints in the hospital?
to prevent a client from falling and sustaining an injury
what is the seond major reason for restraints?
to prevent the client from interrupting therapy, especially when the therapy is life stustaining
the third most common reason for client restraint is....
to prevent the client from harming himself or others
what are the legal ramifications of restraining a client against his will?
you could be charged with assault or false imprisonment
healthy people 2010 indicate that major changes in access to and delivery of health care will occur through...
expanded coverage of broad segments of the population
what is the overarching goal of healthy people 2010?
increasing the quality and years of healthy life
what is 'self-efficacy'?
a person's belief in his/her ability to successfully cope w/ and manage a situation.
What sorts of things to self efficacy affect?
motivation, thought patterns, behavior and emotions. There is a strong correlation between self-efficacy and outcomes of illness management
A term used to describe the dominant medical philosophy of conventional medicine
The system is based on the principle that "like cures like".
homeopathic; develped by sammual haenaman
any form of therapy used in combination with other alternative treatments or standard/conventional medicine
complementary medicine
Alternative and conventional (allopathic) methodologies are combined to stimulate the person's natural healing response
integrative medicine
This is a complete holistic system of medicine which uses the healing properties of medicinal plants
herbal medicine
energy or the primal life force resulting form the interaction of yin and yang
Qi (“chee”),
dynamic, interacting, and interdependent energies, neither of which can exist w/o the other, each contains some part of the other
yin & yang
classical yoga term for a kind of cosmic life force that can be felt within and outside the human body
specific points along the 12 meridian pathways through which Qi flows
what amount of caffeine is enough to cause dependence?
350mg is enough to cause clinical symptoms of dependence
what dose of caffeine is lethal?
focus is on the balance of mind, body, and spirit. disease is viewed as an imbalance between a person's life force and basic metabolic condition
traditonal chinese medicine
TCM/ yin yang, qi, jing, shen, acupuncture, moxibustion
Mind-Body Interventions
meditation, relaxation, imagery, biofeedback, psychotherapy
Biologic Based Therapies
herbal therapies, special diets, orhomolecular medicine, aromatherapy,
Manipulative and Body Based Methods
alexander, chiropractic therapy, rolfing, therapeutic massage
pressure point technique involving the use of applied finger and hand pressure on specific areas of the body to improve energy flow, relieve pain, and stimulate the body's innate healing abilities
designed to restore and maintain health by properly aligning the spine using a variety of adjustment and manipulation techniques
a biofield therapy, therapeutic touch involves the use of the hands to direct or modulate hman energy fields.
therapeutic touch
external application of magnets and magnetic energy in a variety of configurations
basic metabolic condtion according to ayurveda
what are some herbs that can interfere with drugs designed to reduse the effects of hypertension?
garlic, ginseng, ginger, ginko biloba
what are some important components of chinese medicine (TCM)?
Qi, yin/yang, channels or meridians
What should nurses do for clients on or considering herbla remedies?
educate patients about the herbal products they are using and discuss possible side-effects

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