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Standard Grade Geography: Industry


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Where did old industry tend to locate?
Inner City
Name 3 jobs in tertiary industry
Health workers, office workers, teachers – people who provide a service.
What is meant by ‘light’ industry?
Light industry is a manufacturing industry which, unlike heavy industry, isn’t so polluting to the environment. Computers, house hold electricals and food processing.
Name the 3 main sectors of industry, describe each type and give 2 examples of each.
Primary industry – obtaining raw materials from the ground/sea. e.g. farming, fishing, mining.

Secondary industry – aka manufacturing industry. Converting the raw materials into a product. e.g. Iron and Steel industry, car manufacturing, ship building.

Tertiary Industry – provides a service for people. e.g. healthcare, education, television companies.
Nowadays, what is the main sector of industry in the UK?
Tertiary industry
Why has heavy industry in the UK gone into major decline over the last few decades?
Raw material supplies were running out.

In S. Wales, the coal and iron ore were getting increasing difficult to access (coal seams were too narrow for machinery)

Many countries, mostly developing countries, export the raw materials very cheaply to the UK.
Name at least 2 physical and 3 human factors involved with industrial location.
Raw materials, Power supply and Site (these were the main factors during the 19th Century)

Labour, Markets, Transport, Government policies/grants (these are the main factors nowadays)
What are the traditional locations for the Iron and Steel industry, and why were those locations chosen?
1. near forestry – wood was converted to charcoal and used for fuel

2. near coal fields – supplies of wood were running out and coal was an effective fuel.
Where are modern steel works located, and why?
Located on the coast, as most of the raw materials are brought in from abroad (imports are cheaper than the UK supplies). With the processing plant being on the coast, the materials do not need to be transported further by lorry and costs are kept low.
Why is the Inner City no longer a good location for industry?
Streets are narrow – difficult for large lorries to manoeuvre, and there is often congestion.

Little open space – no room for expansion

Not close to workforce – most people live in the suburbs now.

(note, some companies are now returning to the Inner city and occupying Brownfield sites)
What is meant by a footloose industry?
is less dependent on factors that tie them to a specific geographical location.

i.e. they do not have to be near a source of raw materials, but - given good transport, energy and communications - can locate themselves virtually anywhere in the world.

Examples are computer software development, telephone sales and call-centres.
Describe at least 3 characteristics of modern industrial location.
• On the edge of town – land is cheaper and there is room for carparks and possible future expansion.
• Away from housing
• Located in industrial estates
• Located on a bypass, often with a roundabout for access
• Wide roads
• Landscaped
What is an enterprise zone?
Where the government offers incentives to companies to set up in areas of high unemployment.
How to agencies/government offer help within Enterprise Zones? – give 3 ways
⬢ Grants and loans to build factories.
⬢ Low rents and rates.
⬢ Ready-made factories with power installed.
⬢ Assistance with wages.
⬢ Training of workers.
⬢ Building of new roads to improve communications.
Give 4 ways in which Enterprise Zones improve the area?
⬢ Creates new jobs and brings money into the community.
⬢ Develops a better range of skills in the workers.
⬢ Increases the local population.
⬢ Allows local services to be improved.
⬢ New, better housing is built while old housing areas are improved.
⬢ Old factories and polluted areas are cleaned up.
⬢ New parks and leisure facilities are provided.
⬢ There is a general rise in the self esteem of the people and a renewed sense of achievement.

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