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Imperial Russia 1


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Great Plains and Steppe
  • Part of Southern Russia

  • Bordering where the Greeks, Romans, and Byz

System of River Roads
  • The amount of rivers that flow through Russia and to different parts of the continent

  • Ural Mountains

    • Mountain range that splits the continent in two: the European side and the Asian side
    • First known leader of the Rus'
    • Name may indicate a Viking influence
    • Set up first capital in Kiev

    "From the Varangians to the Greeks"

    • North-south 'road' that leads “from the Scandinavian, Baltic, and Russian north of Europe to Constantinople”

    • Vladimir I (980-1015)

      • Vladmir the Christianizer
      • Chose between Islam, Judaism, Catholicism, and Orthodoxy
      • Chose Orthodoxy to improve relations with nearby Xtian states and the ability to choose their own leader
      • Catholicism had to bow to the Pope<
      Yaroslav the Wise (1019-1054)
      • Killed his brothers off to attain control of Kiev
      • Defeated the Pechenegs
      • Maintained relationships with nearby states by marrying off his relations
      • Started compiling a language (Cyrillic)
      • Designed an appanage system
      Appanage or Udel in Russia
      • A system of dividing Russia into smaller princedoms to avoid infighting
      • Yaroslav would appoint the princes, then as they died off, allowed their offspring or near relatives to take over
      • Started to break down because Yaroslav was ou
      Mongol Invasion and Conquest (1237-1242)
      • After conquering China, they went west to conquer the European nations
      • Arrived around 1237
      • Mongol leader Batu stopped only before France because the Golden Horde's leader had died
      • Set up Khanates that would serve as out
      Crimean Khanate
      • Mongol outpost on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea
      • Where the locals mingled and intermarried with the Mongols
      Astrakhan Khanate
      • Mongol outpost at the mouth of the Volga river
      • Conquered by Ivan the Terrible
      • Used the Volga river for trades with the Asian countries
      Kazan Khanate
      • Mongol outpost in the Ural mountains
      • Annexed by Ivan the Terrible
      Siberian Khanate
      • Mongol outpost north of Russia
      • Later invaded by the Russians
      • The people were eventually assimilated into the Russians
      European Renaissance
      • Partially because of the Mongol conquest, Russia did not participate
      • May have been stunted by a few hundred years

      Alexander Nevskii and the "Battle on the Ice"

      • Prince Alexander of Novgorod

      • Lead his army to fight German and Fini

      Boyar Duma

      • A group of boyars that serve as a “council,” or sounding board, for the tsar.

      • Cultural influence of Byzantium

        • Highly influenced their religious and cultural setting.

        • Brought mos

        Ivan I (1328-1340)

        • Ivan Kalita: “John the Moneybag.”

        • Increased the

        Basil I (1389-1425)

        • Attacked the Volga Bulgars around 1400 and captured Great Bulgar and other towns. Treatied with Lithuania in 1408 to avoid further deadlocked, war-like struggles for land,

        Council of Florence 1439

        • The Greek clergy signed an abortive agreement with Rome, recognizing papal supremacy”--uniting the churches to fight the Muslim Turks that are attempting to tak

        The Third Rome

        • Around 1054, the Catholics and Orthodox split, and Byzantine was taken over by the Turks, who were Muslim.

        Dmitrii "Donskoi" (1359-1389)

        • The 9-year-old son of Ivan the Meek who inherited the throne.

        Ivan III (1462-1505)

        • Ivan the Great. End of appanage and beginning of Muscovite Russia.

        • Khan Ahmed

          • Brought Mongol forces to fight the rebellious Russians, while trying to get alliances with Lithuania and Poland which failed.

          Casimir IV of Lithuania and Poland

          • Tver asked Casimir IV of Lithuania for help when Ivan III was trying to gather all former territories of Russia together.

          • Battle of the Ugra River (1480)

            • The united Russian forces, under Ivan III, met the Mongols at the Ugra River.

            Union of Lublin 1569

            • It merged Poland and Lithuania into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where they would have “a common sovereign and a common diet, although they retained separate la

            Chosen Council

            • A small council of people hand-picked by Ivan IV for their different backgrounds and opinions, including Sylvester, a monk, and Alexy Adashev and Ivan Viskovaty, both well-t

            Zemskii Sobor

            • Assembly of the landed. Titled estate holders now had some input on Ivan's decisions.

            Council of Hundred Chapters 1557

            • Created by Ivan the Terrible to curb the church's power.

            Sudebnik of 1550

            • First written law code, established by Ivan the Terrible.

            • It

            Crimean Tatars

            • People who accepted, mingled, and intermarried with the invading Mongols.

            Livovian War (1558-1583)

            • Ivan headed towards the west so Russia could acquire the Baltic Port.

            Feodor (Theodore) I (1584-1598)

            • Child of Ivan IV from his second wife, Kucheny.

            • Was very wea

            Time of Troubles (1598-1613)

            • Feodor produced no heir, so there was no natural heir to the throne.

            • Boris Godunov (1598-1605)

              • Feodor's regent, from a Mongol gentry family, and brother-in-law to Feodor.

              Basil Shuisky (1606-1610)

              • Investigated the death of Dmitrii. He originally claimed it was an accident—that the boy had slit his throat while playing with a knife before an epileptic seizure. <

              The Felon of Tushino/False Dmitrii II

              • False Dmitrii II knew he was an impostor and made claims for the throne that Basil held for a short amount of time.

              • Sigismund III

                • King of Poland.

                • Allowed the Tushino's Russian gentry'

                Michael Romanov (1613-1645)

                • Metropolitan Philaret's son.

                • A specially called zemskii

                Peace of Deulino (1618)

                • Poland was able to keep Smolensk and “other gains in western Russia,” but would release Russia prisoners, including Michael Romanov's father, Philaret.

                Alexis Romanov (1645-1676)

                • Son of Michael Romanov, succeeded him as tsar at 16.

                • Dealt l

                Ulozhenie of 1649

                • New legal code

                • First systemization of Muscovite laws since 1

                Bogdan Khmelnitsky

                • Leader of the Ukrainians.

                • He lead the Ukrainians to push the

                War of Ukrainian Liberation (1648)

                • Ukraine was under rule of Poland.

                • Groups of cossacks, or sic

                Union of Pereslavl (1652)

                • An assembly of Cossack Ukrainians decided that they would accept the authority and protection of Moscow.

                Patriarch Nikon

                • Promoted by Alexis to Great Sovereign, though he held more Catholic ideals of the church being more powerful than the state.

                Raskol (church schism)

                • There were a few mistranslations in some Muscovite religious texts and rituals, and occasionally a member of the clergy would bring up correcting and revising them.

                Treaty of Andrusovo (1667)

                • Long-lasting treaty that ended the Thirteen Years War between Russia and Poland.

                Sophia Miloslavskaya

                • Her mother was the first woman married to Tsar Alexis.

                • She h

                Treaty of Eternal Peace (1686)

                • Prince Basil Golitsyn helped to settle differences between Russia and Poland

                Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689)

                • Peace settlement between Russia and China.

                • It allowed Russia

                Capture of Azov in Turkish War (1696)

                • Because the first campaign against Azov failed, Peter the Great urged his men to build a better fleet, using his knowledge gained by traveling to foreign experts on navy and

                Grand Embassy (1696-98)

                • Peter the Great went on a trip to western nations after the Capture of Azov to gain more knowledge so he can continue to win battles.

                Treaty of Constantinople (1700)

                • An agreement with the Turks that ended the Russo-Turkish war.

                "Window into Europe"

                • Russia acquired part of the Baltic, which allowed it a “window into Europe,” where it could become directly involved with European affairs.

                Battle of Narva (1700)

                • The Swedish king sent a large army to fight the Russian army that was besieging the fortress of Narva.

                Battle of Lesnaia (1708)

                • The Swedish king rested his army in Ukraine, though that king had secretly turned against Sweden.

                Battle of Poltava (1709)

                • The Swedish army was attacking a small fortress, Poltava, and the Russians, lead by Peter the Great himself, came to defend it.

                Conrad Bulavin

                • Lead a social uprising of the Don Cossacks, “provoked by the government's determination to hunt down fugitives and... by the Old Belief.”

                Bashkir Uprising (1705-1711)

                • A monk and a member of the streltsy started a successful uprising in Astrakhan against the upper classes and Peter's foreign influences.


                Treaty of Nystadt (1721)

                • After defeating Poland, Russia acquired Livonia, Estonia, Ingermanland, and certain islands

                • Academy of Sciences (1725)

                  • Meant to “develop, guide, and crown learning in Russia,” after Peter the Great's death.

                  Supreme Secret Council

                  • Created by Catherine I to “deal with matters of exceptional significance.”

                  • Peter II

                    • Catherine I's son.

                    • He was almost 12 when he became emper

                    Ernst Johan Biron

                    • Anne's Courland lover who “became the most hated figure and symbol of the reign.”

                    Treaty of Belgrade (1739)

                    • Ended the Austrian-Turkish war, that Russia was invited into.

                    Treaty of Abo (1743)

                    • Sweden attacked Russia to acquire more territories, but lost.