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fundamentals of nursing


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each person defines health in termso fhis or her own values and beliefs.
Health integrates all dimensions---physical, emotional, intellectual, sociocultural, spiritual, and evironmental aspects.
response of the person to a disease: it is an abnormal process in which the person's level of functioning is changed. Unique to each person.
medical term meaning that there is a pathologic change in teh structure or function of the body or mind.
acute illness
rapid onset and short duration.
stage 1: experiencing symptoms
stage 2: assuming the sick role. seeks validation, gives up normal activities, focus on symptoms...
stage 3: assuming a dependent role. pt's decision to accept the diagnosis and follow trt plan.
stage 4: achieving recovery and rehabilitation.
chronic illness
one or more of following:
-permanent change
-causes or is caused by, irreversible alterations in normal anatomy and physiology.
-requires special pt ed for rehab.
-requires a long period of care or support.
Chronic illnesses: usually slow onset and have periods of remission and exacerbation
Agent-host-environment model
-useful for examining the causes of disease in an individual.
-the agent, host, and evironment interact in ways that create risk factors.
Health-illness continuum
-way to measure a person's level of health.
-views health as a constantly changing state, with high-level wellness and death being on opposite ends of a graduated scale.
High-level wellness model
-functioning ot one's max potential while maintaining balance and purposeful direction in the environment.
-differentiates "wellness" from "good health"
-good health: passive state.
-wellness: active state, regardless of state of health.
Dunn also defined processes that help a person know who and what he or she is:
-being (recognizing self as separate and individual)
-becoming (growing and developing)
-befitting (making personal choices to befit the self for the future)
Health Belief Model
-what people perceive to be true about themselves in relation to their health.
Based on 3 components of perceptions of threat of a disease:
1-perceived susceptibility
2-perceived seriousness of a disease
3-perceived benefits of action.
Health promotion model
"multidimensional nature of persons interacting with their environment as they pursue health"
-Model incorporates individual characteristics and experiences and behavior specific knowledge and beliefs, to motivate health promoting behavior.
-the components of the model can be used to design and proved interventions to promote health for individuals, familes, and communities.
risk factors for illness
-something that increases a person's chance for illness or injury.
-physiologic (obesity)
-health habits
Health dimensions
factos influencing a peron's health-illness status, health beliefs, and health practices.
-physical dimension
nursing assessments of strength and weaknesses in each dimension are used to develop a plan of care.
physical dimension
genetic, age, developmental level, race, adn gender
emotional dimension
how the mid affects the body function and responds to body conditions also influences health.
health practices and beliefs are strongly influenced by economic level, lifestyle, family, and culture.
spiritual dimension
spiritual beliefs and values are important components of a persons health and illness behaviors.
Basic human needs
-physiologic needs
-safety and security
-love and belonging needs
-self-esteem needs
primary preventive care
directed toward promoting health and preventing the development of disease processes.
-health risk assessments
Examples of activities:
-immunizations, family planning, teaching BSE, poison-control information, accident-prevention education.
secondary preventive care
focuses on early detection of desease, prompt intervention, and health maintenance for pts experiences health probs.
-goal is to reverse or reduce the severity of the disease or to provide a cure.
examples of activities:
-carrying out direct nursing actions
-assessing children for normal growth and dev.
-encouraging regular medical and dental screening and care.
Tertiary preventive care
begins after an illness is diagnosed and treated to reduce disability and to help rehabilitate pts to a max level of functioning.
-teaching a pt w/ diabetes how to recognize and prevent complications
-using physical therapy
-referring to support group.

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