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Chapters 13, 16, &17


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“No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.” This statemen
Tittle IX
The provision found in the Fourteeth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution that declares that "No state shall...deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws
Equal Protection Clause
The protection of the individual from arbitrary or discriminatory acts by government or by individuals based on that person's group status, such as race and gender
Civil Rights
The judicial decision rule holding that the Supreme Court will find a government policy unconstitutional unless the government can demonstrate a compelling interest justifying the action
Strict Judicial Scrutiny
Legal provisions requiring the social segregation of African Americans in seperate and generally unequal facilites
Jim Crow Laws
The judicial doctrine holding that Supreme facilites for whites and Afican Americans satisfy the equal protection requirment fo the Fourteeth Amendment
Seperate-but Equal
Lawsuits initated to assess the constitutioanality of a legislative or executive act
Test Case
Racial seperation required by law
De Jure Segregation
Racial seperation resulting from factors other than law, such as housing patters
De Facto Segregation
The right to vote
The denial of voting rights
The electorial system used in the South to prevent the participation of African Americans in the Democratic primary
White Primary
An election held to determine a party's nominees for the general election ballot
Primary Election
A legal requirement that citizens must actually explain a passage in the United States or state constituion before they could register to vote.
Test of Understanding
A legal requirement that citizens demonstrate an ability to read and write before they could register to vote
Literacy Test
A tax levied on the right to vote
Poll Tax
The provision that exempted those persons whose grandfathers had been eligible to vote at some earlier date from tests of understanding, literacy tests, and other difficult- to-achieve voter qualification requirements
Grandfather Clause
A method for choosing public officials in which the citizens of an entire political subdivision, such as a state, vote to select officeholders
At-Large Election
A method for choosing public officials that divides a political subdivision, such as a state, into geographic areas called districts and each district elects one official
District Election
The drawing of election district lines so as to thinly spread minority voters among several districts with the intent of reducing their electorial influence in any one district
Minority-Vote Dilution
The drawing of election district lines so as to cluster minority voters into one district or a small number of districts with the intent of reducing their overall electorial influence
Minority-Vote Packing
A federal law designed to protect the voting rights of racial and ethnic minorities
Voting Rights Act (VRA)
A requirment of the Voting Rights Act that state and local governments in areas with a history of voting discrimination must submit redistricing plans to the federal Department of Justice for approval before they can go into effect.
A legislative district that has a population that is more than 50 percent minority
Majority-Minority District
Law that is written by the legislature
Statutory Law
Private deed restriction that prohibited property owners from selling or leasing property to Afican Americans or other minorities
Racially Restrictive Covenants
The constitutional provision giving Congress authority to regulate commerce... among the serveral states
Interstate Commerce Clause
A federal law designed to end discrimination against persons with disabilites and eliminate barriers to their full participation in American society
American with Disabilites Act (ADA)
A proposed federal law that would protect Americans from employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation
Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA)
Legal partnerships between two men or two women that give the couple all the benefits, protections, and responsibilites under law as are granted to spouses in a marriage
Civil Unions
Steps taken by colleges, universities, and private employers to remedy the effects of past discrimination in admissions, employment, and promotions
Affirmative Action
A legal requirment that firms receiving government grants or contracts allocate a certain percentage of their purchases of supplies and services to businesses owned or controlled by members of minority groups
Minority Business Set-Aside
A procedure available in some states and cities whereby citizens can propose the adoption of a policy measure by gathering a prerequisite number of signatures. Voters must then approve the measure before it can take effect
Initiative Process
A court order requiring someone either to do or refrain from doing a specific act
A California state ballot measure passed in 1996 that was designed to eliminate affirmative action in the state by banning preferetial treatment of women and minorities in public hiring, contracting, and education
Proposition 209
The period of international tension between the United States and the Soviet Union lasting from the late 1940's through the late 1980's
Cold War
The ability of a nation to prevent an attack against itself or its allies by the threat of massive retaliation
The concept that the United States will strike back against an aggressor with overwhelming force, including nuclear weapons
Massive Retalitation
The defense policy that declares that the United States will attack hostile nations or groups that threaten to use weapons of mass destruction against America or its allies
Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons that are designed to inflict widespread military and civilian casualties
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
Nations that act irrationally in the international arena
Rogue States
Public Policy that concerns the relationship of the United States to the international political environment
Foreign Policy
Public policy that concerns the armed forces of the United States
Defense Policy
The view that the United States should stay out of the affairs of other nations
A declaration of Amercian foreign policy opposing any European intervention in the Western Hemisphere and affirming the American intention of avoiding interference in European affairs
Monroe Doctrine
A declaration of American foreign policy calling for American support for all free peoples resisting communist aggression by internal or outside forces
Truman Doctrine
The American policy of keeping the Soviet Union from expanding its sphere of control. Includes the following:
- The Marshall Plan
- The Truman Doctrine
A system of political alignments in which peace and security may be maintained through an equalibrium of forces between rival groups of nations
Balance of Power
The Amercian program that provided bilions of dollars to the countries of Western Europe to rebuild their economies after World War II
Marshall Plan
The world's first satellite lauched by the Soviet Union in 1957
A period of improved communications and visible efforts to relieve tensions between the two superpowers
The view that communism and capitalism were evolving in similar ways, or converging
Convergence Theory
The spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not currently have nuclear capability
Nuclear Proliferation
A series of negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union designed to control nuclear weapons, delivery systems, and related offensive and defensive weapons systems
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)
A declaration of American foreign policy that although the United States would help small nations threatened by communist aggression with economic and millitary aid, those countries must play a major role in their own defense
Nixon Doctrine
A declaration of American foreign policy of containment calling for the United States to offer millitary aid to groups attempting to overthrow communist governments anywhere in the world
Reagan Doctrine
The economic reform program associated soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev
The political reform program associated with Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev
The non-industrialized nations that were aligned with neither the capitalist (First World) nor the communist (Second World) groups of countries
Third World
The integration into national economies into a world economic system in which companies compete worldwide for suppliers and markets
Global Economy
A political community, occupying a definite territory, and having an organized government
Nations whose economies are increasingly based on services, research, and information rather than heavy industry
Postindistrial Societies
A system of official contacts between two nations in which the countries exchange ambassadors and other diplomatic personnel and operate embassies in the each other's country
Diplomatic Relations
An international organization founded in 1945 as a diplomatic forum to resolve conflicts among the world's nations
United Nation (UN)
An international organization created to promote economic stability worldwide
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
An international organization created to control disease worldwide
World Health Organization (WHO)
A regional millitary alliance consisting of the Unted States, Canada, and most of the European democrocies
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
An international organization that administers trade laws and provides a forum for setting trade disputes among nations.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
A tax levied on imported goods
An international accord among the United States, Canada, and Mexico to lower trade barriers among the three nations.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
International organizations that are not part of the established nation-states
Nongovernemental Organization's (NGOs)
The process by which nations carry political relations with each other
An international agreement to reduce the worldwide emmsions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases
Global Warming Treaty
Nuclear defense forces
Strategic Forces
Non-nuclear millitary forces
Conventional Forces
The three methods the United States employs to deliver nuclear warheads to their targets
The belief that the United States and the Soviet Union would be deterred from lauching a nuclear assault against each other for fear of being destoyed in a general nuclear war
Mutual Assured Destruction
The initial offensive move of a general nuclear war, aimed at knocking out the other side's ability to retaliate
First Strike
A nuclear attack in response to an an advasary's first strike
Second Strike
The capacity of a nation to launch an initial nuclear assualt sufficient to criple an advasary's ability to retaliate
First-Strike Capability
The capacity of a nation to absorb an initial nuclear attack and retain suficient nuclear firepower to inflict unacceptable damage on its adversary
Second-Strike Capability
An antiballistic missile shield designed to protect the country against attack by a relatively small number of missles
National Missile Defense System (NMD)
The close cooperation and general agreement between the two major political parties in dealing with foreign policy matters
An international agreement to prohibit any nuclear weapons test explosion or any other nuclear explosion anywhere in the world
Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
A millitary advisory body that is composed of the chiefs of staff of the U.S. Army and Air Force, the Chief of Naval operations and sometimes the Commandment of the Marine Corps
Join Chiefs of Staff
The official policy for dealing with gay men and lesbians in the U.S. armed forces. The millitary would not ask new recruits about their sexual orientation and would stop conducting investigations aimed at identifying and discharging homosexuals but it w
Don't Ask, Don't Tell Policy
A levy assessed on the retail sale of taxable items
Sales Tax
Which of the following is considered a "suspect class"
Are distinctions among persons that must be justified on the basis of a compelling government interest that cannot be achieved in a less restrictive fashion.
Suspect Classifications
_______ of the 1964 Civil Rights Act outlawed discrimintaiton based on race, religion, color, sex, or national origin in hotels, restaurants, gas stations, and other public accomodations.
Tittle II
in which case did the U.S. Supreme Court rule that Texas's hasty creation of an African American law school did not satisfy the constitutional criterion of equal protection
Sweatt vs. Painter
The Court ruled Seperate-but-equal accomodations satisfy the Equal Protection Clause
Plessy vs. Ferguson
The Supreme Court case that undrecut restrictive covenants
Shelly vs. Kramer
Court ruled that a Mississippi district could legally require a Chinese-American child to attend a black school rather than a white school
Gong Lum vs. Rice (1927)
Races cannot be segregated within an institution; but does not live up to “separate-but-equal” standard.
- After being admitted to an all white graduate program at the University of Oklahoma, Mr. McLaurin, an African-American faced segregation
McLaurin vs. Oklahoma (1950)
The U.S. Supreme Court required the state of Missouri to offer a seperate law school for an African American man who had been rejected from the all white University of Missouri Law School. They could not satisfy the seperate-but-equal doctrine by offerin
Missouri ex ral Gaines vs. Canada (1938)
Court finds that segregation based on national origin as a violation of the 14th Amendment’s equal-protection clause
Mendez vs. Westminister (1946)
The Boy Scouts revoked James Dale's membership in their organization because he is a homosexual. Dale sued under a New Jersey law prohibiting discrimination in public accomodations on the basis of sexual orientation. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that app
Boy Scouts of America vs. Dale
The Court invalidated the affirmative action admissions policy at a UC medical school, saying that a numerical quota for minority admissions violate the equal protection Clause of the Fourteeth Amendment
Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke
The Viet Minh attacked and defeated the French at
Dien Bien Phu
A bay of the Caribbean Sea in SW Cuba: site of attempted invasion of Cuba by anti-Castro forces April 1961. Kennedy tries to depose Castro
Bay of Pigs invasion
An alleged attack (Aug., 1964) by North Vietnamese gunboats against U.S. naval forces stationed in the gulf led to increased U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War
Gulf of Tonkin
a town in NW Vietnam: site of defeat of French forces by Vietminh 1954, bringing to an end the French rule of Indochina.
Dien Bien Phu
On Aug. 7, Congress passed a resolution drafted by the administration authorizing all necessary measures to repel attacks against U.S. forces and all steps necessary for the defense of U.S. allies in Southeast Asia.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Vietcong launched a coordinated attack on all the major cities of South Vietnam. U.S and South vietnemese forces eventually defeat the Vietcong, but, American public, seeing the war on tv, realized that war will be longer and more costly than Johnson led
Tet Offensive
- Helped new democratic governments in Eastern Europe
- Invasion of Panama
- U.S led force into Kuwait and repel Saddam Hussein in the first Gulf War
George H.W. Bush
- In foreign affairs
- Of democracy and free markets
Bill Clinton
- Retaliation
- Preemption
- War on Terror
George Bush
National Security Counsel (NSC)
Stephen Hadley
CIA Director
General Michael Hayden
Secretary of State. Respnsibilities include Perusing diplomatic relations with other countries. Protecting American citizens. Intelligence gathering and analysis
Condeleeza Rice

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