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Anatomy & Physiology Paramedic Chapter 3


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The socket in the ball-and-socket joint that connects the pelvic girdle and the lower extremity.
The point at which the clavicle attaches to the acromion process.
Acromioclavicular Joint
One or more toen ligaments in the AC joint, resulting in a seperated shoulder.
Acromioclavicular Seperation
The tip of the shoulder and the site of attachment for both the clavicle and various shoulder muscles.
Acromion Process
The ridges between the teeth, which are covered with thickened connective tissue and epithelium.
Alveolar Ridge
Small pits or cavities, such as the sockets for the teeth or air sacs in the lungs.
A ring of fibrous or fibrocartilaginous tissue that is part of the intervertebral disk.
Anulus Fibrosus
The upper and lower extremities and the girdles that attach them to the axial skeleton.
Appendicular Skeleton
The formation of new bone on the surface of bone.
Appositional Growth
The location where the atlas articulates with the occipital condyles.
Atlanto-Occipital Joint
The first cervical vertebra (C1), which provides support for the head.
The bones that function in hearing and are located deep within cavities of the temporal bone.
Auditory Ossciles
The portion of the skeleton that includes the torso.
Axial Skeleton
The second cervical vertebra, the point that allows the head to turn.
Bruising over the mastoid process, usually from a basilar skull fracture.
Battle's Sign
A fracture of the floor of the orbit usually caused by a blow to the eye.
Blowout Fracture
The sunstance located within the medullary cavity of abone that consists of adipose tissue (yellow marrow) or reb blood-producing cells in bones in the axial skeleton and girdles (red marrow).
Bone Marrow
Grinding together of the upper and lower teeth.
A circumferential ballooning of an intact intervertebrl disk.
Bulging Disk
A small fluid-filled sac located between a tendon and a bone that cushions and protects the joint.
The zone of repair in which a mass of exudates and connective tissue forms around a break in a bone and converts to bone during healing.
A minute canal in a bone.
Bone that is made up of a lacy network of bony rods called trabeculae.
Cancellous Bone
Compression of the median nerve within the carpal canal at the wrist.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)
Plates of shiny connective tissue that are lubricated by synovial fluid to provide a slippery surface over which bones may move freely.
The most serious disk rupture that occurs when nuclear material protrudes straight back into the spinal cord, possible resulting in permanent loss of bladder and bowel control.
Central Disk Herniation
The fluid that bathes and provides hydraulic cushioning to the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrospinal Fluid
A cell that produces cartilage.
The collarbone, which is located on the anterior chest and is an integral part of the shoulder girdle.
A fracture in which the bone ends have not been exposed by a break through the skin.
Closed Fracture
The last four/five vertebrae, which are fused together to form the tailbone.
A fracture in which the bone end is fragmented.
Comminuted Fracture
Bone that is mostly solid, with few spaces.
Compact Bone
A fracture in which the bone collapses.
Compression Fracture
The point where the parietal bones join together with the frontal bone.
Coronal Suture
Inflammation of the costocartilage, which attaches the ribs to the sternum.
The bones that encase and protect the brain, including the parietal, temporal, frontal, occipital, sphenoid and ethmoid bones.
Cranial Vault
A grinding sound or sensation.
A horizontal bone perforated with numerous foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerve filaments from the nasal cavity.
Cribriform Plate
A prominent bony ridge in the center of the anterior fossa to which the meninges are attached.
Crista Galli
The part of a tooth that is external to the gum.
Point at the top of a tooth.
A progressive form of arthiritis that causes deterioration of the intervertebral disk.
Degenerative Disk Disease
The principle mass of the tooth, which is made up of a material that is much more dense and stronger than bone.
The shaft of a long bone.
A state of abnormally small bones.
The growth of cartilage in the epiphyseal plate, which is eventually replaced by bone.
Endochondral Growth
The lining of the inner surfaces of a long bone.
An inflammation of the muscles of the elbow joint; more commonly known as tennis elbow.
The ends of a long bone.
An opening in the temporal bone that containe the ear canal.
External Auditory Meatus
A smooth, flat circumscribed anatomic surface of a bone.
The seventh pair of cranial nerves that supply sensory and motor nerve functions to the face and jaw.
Facial Nerve
The long bone in the thigh.
A cell that secretes proteins and collagen to form connective tissue between broken bone ends.
The long bone on the posterior surface of the leg.
Type of bone that is relatively thin and flattened.
Flat Bone
The soft spots in the skull of a newborn and infant where the sutures of the skull have not yet grown together.
The alrge opening at the bottom of the skull through which the brain connects with the spinal cord.
Foramen Magnum
Small openings, perforations, or orifices in the bones of the cranial vault.
A state of bony overgrowth.
The gums; connective tissue that covers the alveolar ridge.
The bony belts that attach the extremities to the axial skeleton.
the part of the scapula that forms the socket in the ball-and-socket joint of the shoulder.
Glenoid Fossa
A joint where the opposing surfaces of bone glide over each other to articulate.
Gliding Joint
An incomplete fracture in which the bone is bent and only the outer arc of the bend is broken.
Greenstick Fracture
The bony anterior part of the palate, which forms the roof of the mouth.
Hard Palate
A unit of compact bone consisting of a tube (haversian canal) with the laminae of bone that surrounds it.
Haversian System
A tear in the anulus fibrosus that results in leakage of the nucleus pulposus, most commonly against exiting nerve roots.
Herniated Disk
The bone of the arm.
A mineral compound containing calcium and phosphate that, along with collagen, comprises the structural element of bone.
A bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles.
Hyoid Bone
A fracture in which one fragmented bone is wedged into the other fragmented bone end.
Impacted Fracture
A mass of fibrocartilage between each vertebral body of the spine, composed of the anulus fibosus and the nucleus pulposus.
Intervertebral Disk
The opening between each vertebra through which the spinal (peripheral) nerves pass from the spinal cord.
Intervertebral Foramen
The point where two or more bones come together, allowing movement to occur.
An excessively concave thoracic curve. Also called hump back.
One of the minute cavities in bone or cartilage occupied by osteocytes.
The point where the occipital bones attach to the parietal bones.
Lamboid Suture
Thin sheets or layers into which bone tissue is organized.
An enlargement of the distal end of the fibula, which forms the lateral wall of the ankle joint.
Lateral Malleoulus
Tough white bands of tissue that bind bones together.
Type of bone that is longer than it is wide.
Long Bones
An exaggerated lumbar curve or hollow back.
The moveable lower jaw bone.
A cone-shaped section of bone at the base of the temporal bone.
Mastoid Process
A severe infection involving the air cells of the mastoid process.
The distl end of the tibia, which forms the medial side of the ankle joint.
Medial Malleoulus
The internal cavity of the diaphysis of a long bone that contains bone marrow.
Medullary Cavity
The three layers of membranes, the dura, the arachnoid, and pia, that surround the brain.
The bones that form the hand.
Metacarpal Bones
The area of long bone where the disphysisand epiphysis converge. The epiphyseal plate is located here.
The chamber inside the nose that lies between the floor of the cranium and the roof of the mouth.
Nasal Cavity
The seperation between the left and right nostrils.
Nasal Septum
The gelatinous mass that makes up the center of each intervertbral disk.
Nucleus Polposus
A fracture that forms an angle to the shaft of the bone.
Oblique Fracture
Articular surface on the occipital bone where the skull articulates with the atlas on the vertebral column.
Occipital Condyles
The cranial nerve for smell.
Olfactory Bulb
A fracture in which a bone end has penetrated the skin; also called a compound fracture.
Open Fracture
Bony cavity in the frontal skull that encloses and protects the eye.
The three small bones in the middle ear: the malleus, incus, and stapes.
A bone-forming cell.
Large, multinucleated cells taht dissolve bone tissue and play a major role in bone remodeling.
An osteoblast that becomes surrounded by bony matrix.
A genetic disorder in which the patient lacks sufficient collagen for proper strength of the bones.
Osteogensis Imperfecta
An abnormal softening of bone because of a loss of calcium.
An inflammation of the bone usually resulting from bacterial infection.
Unit within a compact bone in which blood vessels are located; also called the haversian system
A reduction in the actual quantity of bony tissue
An irregularly shaped bone found in the posterior part of the nasal cavity.
Palatine Bone
The sinuses, or hollowed sections of bone in the front of the head, which are lined with mucous membrane and drain into the nasal cavity.
Paranasal Sinuses
The kneecap.
the foot of each vertebra in the vertebral arch.
The attachment of the lower extremities to the body, consistin of the sacrum and two pelvic bones.
The membrane that attaches the teeth to the alveolar bone.
Peridontal Membrane
The membrane, made up of a double layer of connective tissue, that covers all bones, except the articular surfaces.
The small bones of the digits of the fingers and toes.
The major site of bone elongation, located just proximal to the bone ends. Also called the growth plate.
An endocrine gland, located in the sella turcica of the brain, responsible for directly or indirectly affecting all bodily functions.
Pituitary Gland
An irritation of the tough band of connective tissue extending from the calcaneus to the proximal phalange of each toe.
Plantar Fasciitis
Soft tissue within the tooth.
The posterior vertical parts of the lower jaw that join the mandible.
A disease caused by vitamin D deficiency.
The five sacral vertebrae, which are fused together to form the posterior portion of the pelvic structure.
Two saddle-shaped articulating surfaces oriented at right angles to each other so that complementary surfaces articulate with each other, such as is the case with the thumb.
Saddle Joint
The point of the skull where the parietal bones join together.
Sagittal Suture
The triangular shaped bone that comprises the shoulder blade, which is an integral component of the shoulder girdle.
An abnormal bending of the spine to the side.
A depression in the middle of the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located.
Sella Turcica
Type of bone that is as broad as it is long.
Short Bone
the attachment point of the upper extremity to the body, consisiting of the scapula and clavicle.
Shoulder Girdle
A ball-and-socket joint conssiting of the head od the humerus and the glenoid fossa.
Shoulder Joint
An inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.
The structure at the top of the axial skeleton that houses the brain and consists of the 28 bones that comprise the auditory ossicles, the cranium, and the face.
A fracture that twists around the shaft of a bone.
Spiral Fracture
The breastbone in the center of the anterior chest.
Several lond, slender, and pointed bones that project downward and forward from the temporal bone. Also, the small bony protrusion to which the ligaments of the wrist are attached.
Styloid Process
Attachment points in the skull where the cranial bones join together.
The transparent viscous lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane in an articulation.
Synovial Fluid
The joint between the temporal bone and the posterior condyle that allows for movements of the mandible.
Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)
Specialized tough cords or bands of dense white connective tissue that attaches muscles to bones.
The long bone on the anterior surface of the leg.
A ringing in the ears.
Bony rods that make up cancellous bone and are oriented to increase weight-bearing capacity of long bones.
A fracture straight across the shaft of a bone.
Transverse Fracture
Spasm of the muscles of chewing.
The posterior portion of a vertebra, which contains the bony processes, facets, and pedicles.
Vertebral Arch
The spine, or primary support structure of the body, which houses the spinal cord and the peripheral nerves.
Vertebral Column
A hole through which spinal nerves pass from the spinal cord.
Vertebral Foramen
The bone that extends along the front of the skull below the orbit.
Zygomatic Arch

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