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The male duct transports semen from the testes on out; while the female duct _______.
transports eggs one way; sperm the other way.
There is a mistaken assumption that reproduction is ____. Rather, it is competetive.
Females/males are designed to accept, store, and utilize sperm.
fertilization occurs in the ____. The ___also finishes off egg production.
the evolution of female internal reproduction necessitates development of mechanisms to prevent colonization by foreign invaders, or ____. Sperm counts as a microbe.
females/males are designed to produce, maintain, portion out, and deliver sperm.
insects use ___, a bag-like structure which delivers a few sperm to each egg as it passes by.
Whereas insects use spermatheca, birds use ___-___structures.
sperm-storage structures
Mammal sperm storage is short-lived; in fact, it is less than ___hours in the female tract.
48 hours
The maximum amount of time sperm can be stored in human male is __days.
5 days.
An outlier to the storage of sperm, __can contain sperm for several months.
The albatross store sperm for up to ___weeks because the partners spend little time together.
8 weeks
Both reptiles and the albatross store sperm for a long time because they have infrequent ___.
Both __ and the ____store sperm for a long time because they have infrequent encounters.
reptiles and the albatross
___is removal of the testes.
Every ejaculation is followed by a ___period.
refractory period
Men produce ___million sperm daily, which equals 2 million million (2 trillion) in lifetime.
12.5 million per day
a cell's content in human ejaculate is approximately equivalent to ___percent of daily skin loss.
5% of daily skin loss
In humans, unusually large testicles would imply higher/lower levels of sperm competition.
Humans, in comparison to other animnals, lie fairly close to the line, implying a(n) high/average/low level of sperm competition.
Female chimpanzees are highly promiscuous, copulating ____to ___times with many different males for each pregnancy.
500 to 1000 times
Female gorillas copulate about __to___times per pregnancy.
20 to 30 times
Where do mammals store their sperm?
In the vas deferens and the tail end of the epidymis.
This hypothsesis states that the ____-___externalization prevents concussive pressure damage during vigorous exercise.
This hypothsesis states externalization prevents concussive pressure damage during vigorous exercise.
This hypothesis states that cooler temperatures teach sperm to survive hardships in the hostile vaginal environment.
"sperm training"
The epididymis must be kept warm/cool to maintain fertilizing potency.
The epididymis is always located proximal to the abdominal wall when the testes are internal/external.
Men have many extra glands, all leading to the urethra. Each serves a different purpose: to ___, ___, ___, and ___.
dilute, stimulate, nourish, and protect sperm.
Copulatory plugs occur in many ___, ___, ____, and ____.
insects, reptiles, marsupials, and mammals.
The ____is always located proximal to the abdominal wall when the testes are internal.
The functions of a ___ ____are to prevent sperm leakage, act as a reservoir for gradual sperm release, and reduce an extra pair of mating resulting in insemination.
copulatory plug
Snails are hermaphrodites They engage in a love game called ___ ___.
"penis fencing"
A ____is a sperm package penis substitute.
___have some of the most impressive penis structures in the world.
foreplay for a buffalo weaver takes up to ___minutes.
30 minutes
Males have one of three ___ designs:

1) fibroelastic
2) stiffening bone (os ___)
3) hydraulic
In which country do women place brass rings on their neck? In ___ ___women attemot to reach ___rings.
eastern Burma; 32 rings
In China, women committ to foot binding in order to _____ _______.
achieve a high societal status
Foot-binding in China was done in the early __ to ___th centuries.
10th to 20th centuries.
The Chinese foot (binded ) was known as the ___ ____.
"Golden Lotus"
The small shoe size worn by women today causes women shortened ___ muscles and a strained ____.
calf muscles; strained back
When a woman is sexually aroused, her lips become ___ and ___.
larger and redder
Lipstick is worn in order to make a female's lips appear ___.
In Ethiopia, the value of a woman is determined by the size of her ___ ____.
lip plate
In ____ _____, a woman's sexual features are exaggerated. She wears clothing that exaggerates the size of her hips.
tribal Africa
Cultures have adapted hair as a sexual symbol. Thus, shorter hair for a woman symbolizes her ______.
In ____, the Orthodox women are required to cover their hair.
A ___is an instrument that measures the change in the size of the pupils.
In ___, phallis worship is widespread.
In ___, "lingam" is the name of a phallus shrine.
In Tahiti, __ ____is a demonstration of courage.
body tatooing
In Tahiti, a flower above a woman's left ear signals that a woman is ____, whereas a flower above the right ear signals that a woman is ___.
taken; available
In Western Africa, men have many wives. In fact, one West African man has ___ wives.
In ____, there exist harems in which women give sultans sums. For men, this is a massive status display. Any woves who caused displeasure were executed (often by drowning).
In ___, there exists a crater that symbolizes eternity. Many _____couples choose to marry here.
Estonia; Estonian
In ___, prior to getting married, a fiancee (female) purchases gold jewelry (in case she will lose everything-her husband may take away all of her possessions).
3 main ideas to account for spermatozoa variation are:

1) reproductive isolating mechanism
2) females prefer larger sperm
3) attractiveness of sperm accurately reflects the viability of the sperm's producer
A spermatozoa's ___consists of flagellum to provide a mechanical thrust.
A spermatozoa's ___contains mitochondria-energy for flagellum propulsion.
___at head tip digests through outer egg layers.
A sperm consists of 3 parts:

head, midpiece, and tail
The male/female produces and delivers sperm.
Pick one:

Ova or sperm: highly mobile, and have limited internal resources.
Pick one:

ova or sperm: specialized to deliver haploid chromosome payload.
Pick one:

Ova or sperm: immobile, loaded with nutrients that take up volume.
___is the degeneration of ova throughout the lifespan of a female.
Females start life with a fixed quota of ___; many never ovulate.
___is the difference in the size of male and female gametes.
___is small, produced by males, whereas ___are large, produced by females.
sperm; ova
Biting a partner's penis (apophallation) could minimize the chance that they will copulate again, so partner is more likely to use ___sperm from transfer.
donated sperm
Individuals having lost their penis through apophallation behave like ____as acceptors.
The process of apophallation may help ensure the recipient uses the sperm for ___rather than lunch.
Sometimes slugs' long penises get knotted together during copulation. The owner is left with no alternative but to bite off their penis at the base, a process known as _____.
Penis function has been aimed toward 3 main purposes/functions:

1) removal/repositioning of repositioning of rival sperm w/in the female.
2) removal of copulatory plugs.
3) stimulation of the female.
"Lock and key hypothesis is challenged by the ____ ____ hypothesis: penises evolved to stimulate females during copulation.
'female choice' hypothesis
Long established __ __ __ hypothesis says that penis design specifies species mating and prevents cross-mating between species.
'lock and key' hypothesis
Ova/sperm are specialized to deliver haploid chromosome payload.
___is the difference in thge size of male and female genitals.
The function of large, fleshy extensions of female external genitalia may be an attempt to ____to male penis length.
Why is there diversity in penis structure if the penis is just an appendage of semen transfer?

(2 main forces).
1) competition between males

2) female choice
Additional penile appendages appear to be used for maintaining ____w/ the female. This is usually to the female's disadvantage.
genital contact
____selection is responsible for the greater penis complexity in polyandrous insect species than in monogamous insect species.
sexual selection
There is greater penis complexity in polyandrous ____species than in its monogamous counterpart.
The ___hypothesis predicts greater penis diversity in monogamous insect species since it's critical that they copulate with the correct partner.

Is this hypothesis correct?
'Lock and key' hypothesis; incorrect
The____hypothesis states that species in which females routinely copulate with several males during a single reproductive cycle/estrous cycle tend to have much more elaborate penises than those of species where females are monogamous.
'stimulation' hypothesis
Are there some species that have evolved multiple penises?
Mammals have one of three penis designs:

1) ____(permanently erect) -dogs, pigs, cattle, and whales.

2) ____(os penis)-prmiates, rodents, insects, bats, carnivores

3) ____ (spongy compartments filled w/ blood)-humans
1) fibroelastic

2) stiffening bone

3) hydraulic
Long-established ____hypothesis-penis design specifies species mating and prevents cross-mating between species.
'lock and key' hypothesis
A spermatozoa's ____consists of flagellum to provide a mechanical thrust.
A spermatozoa's ____contains mitochondria-energy for flagellum propulsion.
Ova/sperm are highly mobile, and have limited internal resources.
A spermatozoa's ___contains mitochondria (energy for flagellum propulsion).
The ___at the head of the sperm digests through outer egg layers.
Sagebrush Cricket and Scorpion Flies:

Why do males have a gin trap (teeth) on their back?
to catch the female. Female has a taste for blood.
What is the role of anogenital swelling in female chimpanzees?

Name 2
1) send sexual signals to male

2) gain food resources
There are 2 theories of chimpanzee promiscuity:


1) sperm competition

2) obfuscation theory-create confusion over the paternity of their child
In which way do Burrying Beetles prevent men from cheating on them?
scolding, chivying, and harrying males.
When a male____reaches climax, he explodes on purpose. He leaves his genitals inside female to prevent her from mating with another male.
Females of this species only have sex with males who have territory.
Yellow-Rumped Honey Guide
Females and males of this species trade sex for food.
Yellow-Rumped Honey Guide
Promiscuous females of this species create more eggs than males who only mate once.
Yellow-Rumped Honey Guide.
The ___'s penis is covered with spines.
Golden Poto's
The more promiscuous a mate of the ___species, the more elaborate his penis.
Golden Poto

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