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Final Study Guide


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What is the core of the earth
densest and heaviest material of the earth
what does the rotation of the earth effect in the core?
the outer layer, made of liquid, that when spinning creates Earths magnetic field
what is the difference between the outer and inner core of the earth
the inner core is solid and made of nickel and iron; the outer core is liquid material
What is the mantle
the layer of rock below the crust
How does convection work in the mantle
hot rocks rise up through the cooler layers; as they cool they flow sideways before sinking again into the core
Convection in the asthenosphere usually causes:
volcanic activity
The asthenosphere is the hardest part of the mantle. True or False
False; it is the softest and most easily deformed
The crust is part of...
the lithosphere
What is the Moho?
the lower boundary of crust where seismic waves increase in speed as they enter the upper mantle
How many major crustal plates are there?
Denser continental plates do what?
gooes over lighter plates.
Oceans plates go over continental plates? True Or False
False; they go over continental plates because they are denser
Rocks formed by the cooling of magma
Fossil Marine organism ------>Limestome------>Marble; explain how each was formed
the fossil marine organisms were compacted together in convection to create the limestome. Intense heat and pressure changed the limestone to marble
Intense pressure or heat that changes a rock is called a ________________ rock
how are sedimentary rocks formed?
through the combination of other rocks through convection (compaction and combining of other rocks)
When magma comes up from below the Earth's surface, what is it referred to as?
Fe Mg (Si O2)
Al (Si O2)
What two components make up the Earth's crust?
Sima and Sial
All rocks were originally igneous. True or False
What are two characteristics of oceanic rocks?
denser rocks, younger
What are two characteristrics of continents?
less dense, lighter rocks; older
What are the basic components of continents?
interior shield, stable platform, internal plain, folded mountain belt
What was the supercontinent that united all land masses 200 million years ago called?
Who gave the Continental Drift theory?
Alfred Wegener
What does the continental drift theory state?
that continents were originally together in one landform, but have broken apart.
What was the evidence that was given for continental drift?
the geographic fit of the continents, fossils of same species were found on same aged rocks in different continents, mountains of the same age and rock type were found on both sides of the atlantic ocean, radio transmissions over the atlantic took longer each year
Continental Drift relies on what two principles?
Plasticity-land can bend and change
isostasy-buoyancy of the earth as it floats in the asthenosphere; the heavier the weight, the deeper it floats
What were two problems facing the continental drift theory?
people were convinced that the earths crust was hard; they couldnt conceive that plasticity and isostasy were possible
no suitable mechanism could be thought of to move such large landmass
What is the sea flood spreading theory?
oceans were pulling apart from each other, as this occurs new material surfaces
Who popularized the sea flood spreading theory?
Harold Hess, in 1960
The sea floor spreading theory helped confirm what theory?
plate tectonic theory
What was the plate tectonic theory?
crustal rearrangement due to Earths internal energy (convection cells drive movement of plates)
Iron grains in rocks will cool and point to where?
earth's magnetic field
Paleomagnetism confirmed what theory?
Plate Tectonic Theory
What does the orientation of iron grains show and with what does it show this with?
how earths magnetic field has changed; magnetic stripes
Divergent plates do what?
move away from each other
What happens when divergent plates move apart from each other?
the asthenosphere is stretched and thinned; creates mid-ocean ridges and flood basalts-volcanos and earthquakes common
How fast do continental plates move?
the speed that fingernails grow
How do plates compensate for the stretching of the asthenosphere?
by constantly smashing and reforming into each other
Plates that are coming together are...?
convergent plates
Name the three different types of convergent plate boundaries
Subduction of denser ocean plate is what type of convergent plate boundary?
Subduction of denser ocean plate below another is what type of convergent plate boundary?
Compression and warping occur in this type of convergent plate boundary?
The St. Andreas fault is an example of?
Lateral Plate Contacts...aka. Transform Faults
What is a transform fault?
when plates slide past one another
Large rivers that go through dryland which originate in wetter climates
Exotic Streams
The Nile River and Colorado River are examples of
Exotic Streams
Intermittent Stream
stream that flows only for short periods in the year; initiated by rain
What is the resistant rock left after sediment and rock around it arodes?
Waht shape are alluvial fans?
fan shaped
Where do alluvial fans form and what does a decrease in slope mean?
alluvial fans form at the mouth of canyon. A decrease in slope decreases the flows transport capacity.
Episodic Streams follow what kind of floods?
flash floods
Interior Drainage
all drainage runs into closed basins-dry lake beds
Scarp Terrain is also called
Mesa Terrain
An example of a mesa scarp terrain
The Grand Canyon
Delfation hollows are formed by
euolian processes (wind erosion)
Fine material removed, leaving dish shaped feature is called
Deflation hollows
Why are desert pavements covered in cobble stone?
smaller particles carried away and eroded by winds; also, water erosion
What is an erg?
A vast sea of sand (Sahara Desert)
Sand Dune
caused by wind movement; can be live or fixed
What side does a slip face appear on a sand dune?
the leeward side
blanket of sediment that forms cliffs; found in desert, dry floodplains, glacial outwash
Two types of erosion
deflation, abrasion
Deflation involves what
loose particles picked up by the wind; cobble ground is left after finer materials are blown away
Abrasion involves what
near ground surface, scult desert features
Two types of transportation are
saltation and suspension
Saltation transports small particles. True or False
False; saltation transports the large particles
Suspension transports small particles. True or False
A sand dunes shape is determined by what factors
sand amount available, strenght and direction of the wind, and amount of vegetation covering
A barchan dune is what shape?
crescent shaped
A wavy dune is what type of dune?
Longitudinal dunes are short and wide. True or False
False; longitudinal dunes are long and narrow
Loess are made of?
salt and clay
moving swell or ridge on the surface of a solid or liquid without the medium of a gas
Long Term Sea Level Changes
Eustatic; Isostatic, Tectonic
change in world wide sea level due to volume of ice on Earth's surface
change of continent position relative to sea level; land is still rebounding from when topped with glacial ice
changes in local land position relative to sea
Short Term Seea Level Change
Tides, waves, currents
Tides are controlled by:
the moon
Two types of wave erosion are
hydraulic action
abrasion-carries sediment
A strip of land that juts out from the coastline
Think bulges of rock a short distance from coastline
Sea Stacks
Seismic waves are caused by
Seismic waves are also called
Chemical Weathering of underground rock create what?
Glaciers are made of
ice and firn that lies entirely or somewhat on mainland
Ice Sheets
huge, continent sized. Examples: Antartica, Greenland
The snow on top of a mountain is called
Ice cap
small mountain glaciers, found at all latitudes
Alpine Glaciers
Glaciers form above what?
the annual snowline
Zone of Ablation
net loss of the glacial budget; from melting, sublimation, wind
Zone of Accumulation
annual gain of the glacial budget; from snow, condensation, frost
Equilibrium Line
separates the two zones
Glaciers erode the surface when they move; mountainous formations it can create are
horn, aretes, tarn lake, cirque
A glacial trough in a valley leaves
hanging valley
glacial debris deposited directly by the glacier
Four types of moraines, mountain glaciers
ground, lateral, medial, terminal
Glacier melts----->debris is left
till, moraine, kettles, drumlins, esker, outwash plain
Parts of the glacier ripping off into large body of water
icebergs are produced by
Glaciers are developed by
snow into ice into firn into glacier
Two zones the glacial budget balances
zone of ablation, zone of accumulation
Positive Mass Budget; net profit
Zone of Accumulation
Negative Mass Budget; net loss
Zone of Ablation
Ablation Versus Accumulation
Three ways glacial erosion modifies landscapes
plucking and quarrying; abrasion; crushing
Glacial Erosion: Plucking and Quarrying
ice frozen to glacier can remove rock
Glacial Erosion: abrasion
ice grinds on bedrock, polishing the rock
Glacial Erosion: Crushing
rocks are crushed by weight of glacier
glaciers transports with them different rocks and sediments. how
carried on glacier, frozen in ice, dragged along the bed
Glacial Flour
fine sediment carried by meltwater from base of glacier
Glacial Deposits
Glaciofluvial deposition
sorted by water deposition, meltwater streams; glacial outwash
Glacial Period is also called
Ice Age
Long term periods of glacial ice
glacial period
shortterm period of glacial ice
interglacial period
Ice sheet that covered the Hudson Bay, created Great Lakes
Laurentide Ice Sheet
Sea water has contains what oxygen isotopes
16o and 18o
Warm water has more _____ isotopes
Cold water has more ________ isotopes
Oxygen Isotope Ratio
isotopic ratio of marine skeletons; helped further understanding of glacial periods in cycles
Glacial Theory popularized by
Glacial Theory
glaciers as mechanisms to move large boulders outside stream channels
Oxygen Isotope Ratios popularized by
Astronomical Theory popularized by
Three Theories for Climatic Change
Internal Energy, External Energy, Astronomical Theory
Internal Energy Evidence for Climatic Changes
landmass over polar region can cool surrounding ocean; increased mountain ranges mean more land at higher altitude
External Energy Evidence for Climatic Changes
variations of energy put out by sun, atmospheric changes
Three atmospheric changes for climatic change
dust particles filter solar energy; volcanic particles deflect the energy; carbon dioxide accumulation due to greenhouse effect
Astronomical Theory
physical change in Earth-Sun relationship
Evidence for Astronomical Theory
eccentricity in orbit due to other planets changing ours; til of earth changes
For an ice age to occur based on the astronomical theory, what needs to occur
elongated orbit, winter solstice is furthest from sun
The more tilt the earth has
the more exaggerated seasons
Evidence for past glaciations: terrestial
drift has left sediment, position of coastline, plant and animal fossils, ice cores
Evidence for past glaciations: marine
changes in distribution of marine fauna; oxygen isotope ratio--->alternating warm and cold cycles
Three ways humans have effected global warming
carbon dioxide is created greenhouse effect; industrial revolution, burning of fossil fuels,
The urban heat island effect
buildings make the days and nights warmer
Ozone depletion caused by
CFCs (fridges, styrofoam), ozone holes over polar regions, industrial revolution----->carbon
can melt oceanic rock
igneous rock formed from magma
Cinder Cone
small volcano, comes from basaltic rock, violent eruption out of single vent
Fault Block Mountains
tensional fault, cracks and breaks apart
Earthquake focus
place of origin in ocean
point on Earths surface directly above focus
Volcanic Activity at Continent/Oceanic convergent plates
coastal mountains, violent eruptions, composite volcanos
Volcanic Activity at Oceanic/Oceanic convergent plates
island arcs (Phillippines)
Volcanic Activity within a plate
non violent eruption; hotspots; shield volcanos--->Hawaii
Interplate Earthquakes
happen because of isostatic rebound
Weathering is
changing material
Earthflow, mudflow
rocks and soil moving downslope with water; slow, stumping
Jointing suggests
different rocks weather faster then others
Mechanical Weathering
physical breakdown of rock
Frost Wedging
due to freeze and thaw of water
Salt Wedging
due to growth of salt particles; salt expands--->breaks rock
Exfoliation causes rocks to
peel and lose a layel
Cracking in rocks due to
change of pressure
Biological Activity in Mechanical weathering of rocks
by tree roots
Mass wasting
weathering through movement
Velocity of water is determined by
gradient, volume, turbulence
Meandering Stream
stream that forks and causes valley widening
Cutoff Meanders and Oxbow Lakes are examples of
meandering streams
Braided Streams are networks of channels separated by what
Braided streams are caused by
easily eroded banks, large sediment flow, large variation in discharge
Constant, year-round stream
Graded Stream
stream in equilibrium, gradient is smooth
Valley Deepening
rapid velocity or large flow will take place
Valley Widening
energy diminishes and stream erodes laterally, then meanders
Valley Lengthening
Headward Erosion, Delta Formation
Drainage Basins
drainage into closed basins

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