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Why undesirable?
thrust from the operating engine yaws the aircraft so rudder must be applied toward the operating engine. This rudder force results in the sideslip condition. Pilot can maintain aircraft heading but it produces a HIGH DRAG CONDITION that reduces aircraft performance.
Aircraft is banked into the operating engine (usually 2-5), this bank creates a horizontal component of lift.
'Tell me about a minimum equipment list,' he said.

'The Seminole doesn't have one,' was my immediate answer. That was a direct quote from my instructor.
MELs can also be established for those of us who operate small aircraft under FAR Part 91. An MEL is defined in Advisory Circular 91-67 as a precise listing of instruments, equipment, and procedures that allows an aircraft to be operated under specific conditions with inoperative equipment
'Well, what is a letter of authorization?' he asked. I shrugged, feeling as if I had mistakenly come to the wrong room.
A. Aircraf t Requiring a Type Rat ing.
Circumstances may arise that require an aircraft to be
flown by a pilot who does not hold a type rating for that
aircraft. Provided the flight can be completed safely, an
operations inspector may issue an LOA under FAR §
61.31(b). This LOA (Figure 33-1) permits a pilot to act
as pilot-in-command (PIC) of the aircraft for the
proposed flight.
By now he seemed disgusted. I must have looked stunned. 'Well, we'll have to go over this another time,' he said.

Finally, after what seemed like an eternity, he moved into things I knew. I drew a schematic of the fuel system. I knew my V spe
What is Vmc?
Vmc is the slowest calibrated airspeed at which if the critical engine fails, it is possible to regain control of the aircraft with that engine inoperative, and maintain straight flight with zero yaw and a bank of no more than 5 degrees.
What makes an engine critical?
The critical engine is the engine that if fails will result in the greatest adverse yaw through p-factor, torque, and arm length of the accelerated air-stream.
Being air-born and out of ground effect will make Vmc go down???? T/F
This is the correct answer. P-factor, torque, and arm length of the accelerated air-stream will be more pronounced.
Lowering the landing gear will always have a stabilizing effect. T/F
In situation regarding the older tail-wheel aircraft, the main gear is forward of the CG and will have a destabilizing effect
The greatest factor affecting Vmc is . . . .
Wind milling Prop
A Wind milling prop will affect Vmc more than anything else.
With a loss of one engine, you can expect climb performance to diminish by about 50% T/F
Even though the book says that it can diminish as much as 80%, its possible that you could be above your single engine service ceiling and lose over 100%. You would therefore start descending.
What is the difference between zero yaw and zero sideslip?
Zero yaw means the nose is holding on a particular heading, zero sideslip means the aircraft is flying straight
Rudder is used to stop the aircraft from yawing and keeping it on a particular heading during an engine failure. Banking is used to eliminate sideslip and keep the aircraft flying where the nose is pointed
Your engine has just failed in cruise flight. The first thing you should do is . . . .
Fly the plane
The pilots number one job is ALWAYS to fly the plane
Then he went into pressurization, another area I hadn't studied. Unnecessary, since the Seminole wasn't pressurized, I had been told by my instructor. Why wasn't he asking me one of the two hundred things I had learned? Was there someone standing behind
A pilot with radio failure should immediately squawk 7600. T/F
Squawking 7600 is not always necessary. Assess the situation before deciding to squawk 7600. For example, if you are flying VFR and are not in contact with ATC, landing as soon as practical without squawking 7600 is fine. However, if in the same situation near controlled airspace, squawking 7600 is recommended.
How will ATC attempt to reach an aircraft if a radio failure is suspected?
Through the voice feature of VORs
Relays through other aircraft
Cell phone
If communications are lost while flying in instrument conditions on an IFR flight plan, controllers will expect you to continue to fly your route in which order?
As assigned, vectors, expected, filed
See 91.185
Which altitude should be flown if communications are lost while in IMC on an IFR flight plan?
The last altitude clearance given by ATC

The minimum altitude on the chart
The altitude ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance
ANSWER: The highest altitude of those above
See 91.185
ATC will expect an IFR aircraft with lost communications to do what to begin the approach into the airport of intended landing?
Proceed to the IAF from the clearance limit fix, and begin the approach as close as possible to the expect further clearance time or if this is unavailable, the estimated time of arrival.
See 91.185(3)
What should a pilot do if he/she encounters a radio failure while on an IFR flight plan if in visual conditions?
Troubleshoot, squawk 7600, and proceed VFR to land as soon as practical.
If a radio failure occurs in uncontrolled airspace, and a pilot is flying VFR without ATC contact, he/she is not required to squawk 7600.
If radio failure occurs while still on the ground, and the pilot sees a flashing white signal, what should the pilot do?
Return to starting point on the airport
How should the VFR traffic pattern be entered at an uncontrolled field in the event of a radio failure?
Overfly the airport 500 feet above pattern altitude; look for traffic and establish wind direction, determine the runway in use, and enter on the 45.
How should a VFR approach and landing be conducted into the main airport within a Class D surface area if an in-flight radio failure occurs?
Remain outside or above Class D airspace until direction of traffic and runway in use has been determined. Squawk 7600 before entering Class D airspace, enter the traffic pattern on a 45, and fly a typical pattern for landing. Look for light gun signals.
What do you do if you have PROPELLER OVERSPEED?
retard the throttle
The propeller control should be moved to full DECREASE RPM and then set if any control is available
Airspeed reduced and throttle used to maintain 2700 RPM
How is hydraulic pressure for ger operation provided?
an electrically powered reversible hydraulic pump
How is the gear held in the up position?
Solely by hydraulic pressure
Waht assist in gear extension and in locking the gear in the DOWN position?
After the gear is down, what engages? What keeps it locked?
Downlock hooks engage and springs maintain force on each hook to keep it locked until it is released by applying hydraulic pressure with the gear selector.
How is gear retraction on the ground prevented? Where located?
SQUAT SWITCH, located on the left main landing gear.
How doe sthe SQUAT SWITCH work?
GROUND-switch is open, preventing electrical current from reaching the hydraulic pump.
AIRBORNE, the strut becomes extended, closing the switch that allows current to reach the hydraulic pump.
Why is it important to verify the position of the nav light switch in an emergency?
this swicth will cause the green lights to be dimmed and in some cases, make them impossible to see during the day.
What will happen if hydraulic pressure is lost with gear retracted?
The gear will FREE-FALL.
How do you steer the nose wheel?
Through the use of the rudder pedals and is steerable 30 degrees either side of center.
What is a Scupper Drain?
Where is it?
What is it for?
a hole just inside the fuel filler cap cover coming out of each fuel cell as does a fuel vent, The filler is recessed and the scupper drains drain water that may get into the recess before it runs into the fuel tank when you take the fuel cap off

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