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Streams 2


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No stream can erode...
below sea level
Examples of fresh water
-ground water
Dry climate cycles of erosion
-dominated by sparse vegitation
-water is sparse
-erosion is parallel to cliff retreat
-rain = tremendous amount of erosions
-becomes wider
Humid climate cycles of erosion
-rain fall is plentiful
-vegitation is lush
-may create a peneplain (nearly level/flat)
Volume of water in a stream or river moving past a specific point in a given interval of time
hydraulic action
The removal of loose particles by the power of moving water
"Grinding away" process/ sand paper effect
suspended load
The smallest particles (silt and clay) carried by running water, which are kept suspended by fuild turbulence.
bed load
The part of a stream's sediment load, mostly sand and gravel, transported along its bed.
A collective term for all detrital sediment transported and deposited by running water.
braided stream
A stream with mutiple dividing and rejoining channels.
meandering streams
A stream that has a single, sinuous channel with broadly looping curves.
point bar
The sediment body deposited on the gently sloping side of a meander loop.
oxbow lakes
A cutoff meander filled with water.
cut bank
Deeper side of the channel.
Low-lying, flat area adjacent to a channel that is partly or completely water covered when a stream or river overflows its banks.
A fan shaped deposit at the mouth of a stream.
alluvial fan
A cone shaped accumulation of mostly sand and gravel deposited where a stream flows from a mountain valley onto an adjacent lowland.
drainage pattern
The regional arrangement of channels in a drainage system.
base level
The level below which a stream or river cannot erode; sea level is ultimate base level.
graded stream
A stream that has an equilibrium profile in which a delicate balance exists among gradient, dischare, flow, velocity, channel characteristics, and sediment load so that niether significant deposition nor erosion takes place within its channel.
A linear depression bounded by higher areas such as ridges or mountains.
When a river or stream has more energy than it needs to transport sediment, excess energy is used to deepen its valley.
lateral erosion
Valley walls are undercut my stream action.
stream piracy
Breaching of a drainage divide and diversion of part of the drainage of another stream.
stream terrace
An erosional remnant of a floodplain that formed when a stream was flowing at a higher level.
headward erosion
Entering runoff at the upstream end of a valley cause the valley to become longer.
incised meander
A deep, meandering canyon cut into bedrock by a stream or river.
superposed stream
A stream that once flowed on a higher surface and eroded downward into resistant rocks while maintaining its course.
Running water is...
a major force in shaping of the earth's surface.
A stream is...
any flow of water confined between channels.
drainage basin
The area from which a stream transports water.
Fluvial processed include:
Vertical drop of a stream bed over a given distance.
Good examples of trellis drainage patterned stream systems can be found...
in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge province.
A stream's flow is measured by the amount of its...
A stream flows from its source to its...
process of dissolving minerals by water.
(chemical process)
traction load
> than sand particles / gravel
-moves sand size particles
-move by jump
-rise about 3 ft than fall down
amount (quantity) of sediment carried by a stream.
Early stage capacity
-low capacity
-high competence
-capacity increases downstream
capacity relates to size
-high velocity/steep gradient
-high competence = pushing large rocks
Late stage capacity
-high capacity
-low competence
As competence decreases...
capacity increases.
dissolved load
The part of a stream's load consisting of ions in solution.
sheet flow
unconfined fluid/inefficient
channel flow
occurs in streams/sufficient
drainage divide
All the high group that seperates this basin from all other basins.
at high/early stage RGQV
(R) High
(G) Highest
(Q) Lowest
(V) Fast
at middle stage RGQV
(R) Decreases
(G) Decreases
(Q) Increases
(V) Should decrease can increase
at low/late stage RGQ
(R) Lowest
(G) Lowest
(Q) Highest
high/early stage channel
-V shaped
-no flood planes
middle stage channel
-trough shaped
-flood planes
-starts to bend/meander
low/late stage channel
-very broad
-very sinuous
-broad flood planes
high/early stage erosion
-downcutting its channel
-creates unstable slope by mass wasting
low/late stage erosion
-less erosion
-more treposition
-dominated by deposition
high/early stage flow
-fast speed
-turbluent flow
low/late stage flow
-even more laminar
-slows down
-has greatest volume
top set beds
foreset beds
sand, silt
bottom set beds
mud, silt
poorly sorted sand deposits
middle stage sediment
-mud fines
-graded bedding
Dendritic drainage pattern
Irregular pattern of channels that branch like a tree.
Rectangular drainage pattern
Channels have a right angle bends developed along perpendicular sets of rock fractures or joints.
Radial drainage pattern
Channels radiate outward like spokes of a wheel from a high point.
Centripetal drainage pattern
Channels converge on the lowest point in a closed basin from which water cannot drain.
Annular drainage pattern
Long channels form a pattern of concentric circles connected by short radial channels.
Trellis drainage pattern
Pattern resembling a vine growing on a trellis.
Deranged drainage pattern
Channels flow randomly.

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