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Bio 33 2


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Behavioral Genetics
understand genetic and enviornmental contributions to behavior
Difficulties in behavioral genetics
-Defining behaviors (can depend on context)
-Measurement of behavior
-Heritability measures apply only to population studied in particular enviornment
Evidence Behavior has genetic component
Species specific behaviors
Behaviors breed true
Some behaviors run in families
MAOA Deficiency
Monoamine Oxidase A= metabolize serotonin (reward nt)and dopamine, noradrenaline (fight or flight)
Defect on X chromosome-> decrease in enzymes activity; dont metabolize nt as effectively
Impulsive killers=low serotonin levels
Huntingtons disease
Single gene disorder
Associated w/ some cases of aggressive behavior
Intelligence Testing
Put people in certain categories
Given to immigrants, labled as gifted, average, or feeble minded
Spotty history of trying to measure intelligence
Mendelian genetics applied to human heredity
"Improve" humanity by encouraging reproduction of ppl with "good" genes and discouraging reproduction of ppl with "bad" genes
Kept races separate, Nazi
Progressive; blamed vicitims for own problems rather than social forces)
Sterilization Laws
Made legal the sterilization of "feebleminded, insane, criminal, epileptic, diseased, blind, deaf, deformed"
Includes orphans, tramps, homeless, and paupers
Sensory: bring info to brain
Motor: send info outward to muscles
Behavoiral traits
siblings=3-5x risk
twin studies:80%
Eating disorders
Anorexia=psych. perception of obesity+intentional starving
Bulimia=psych. perception of obesity+ intentional vomiting
Muscle dysmorphia: psych. perception of small muscle mass + steriods, excessive gym
women: .5-1% lifetime risk
highest mortality rate: 15-21%
2.5% risk of 2nd eating disorder
hertiability: 0.5-0.8
Genes: Leptin (regulates appetite), Serotonin (regulates mood, appetite), Dopamine (emotional response, pain pleasure)
=ability to reason, learn, remember, sythesize, deduce and create
-Alfred Binet/ IQ test.
-Standford modified
Mutliple intelligences
Drug Addiction
Tolerence=need to take more to achieve same effect
Dependence=withdrawal symptoms with cessation of drug
Brain becomes structurally different; change in genes
=ability to organize thoughts and perceptions, withdrawal from reality.
-difficulty paying attention, memory/learning skills affets, psychosis
-multifactorial trait
Risk factors for schizo
Maternal malnutrition
Infection by Borna virus
Fetal Oxygen deprivation
Obstetric or birth complication
Psychoactive Drug use (pcp)
Traumatic brain injury
Herpes infection at time of birth
DNA Properties
-Sugar (deoxribose)
-Base (adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine)
Sugar-phosphate "backbone" connect nucleotieds in chain.
Anti parellel: 5'end of one strand aligns with 3' end of complimentary strand
Discovery of "transforming principle"
Griffith. Bacteria & Mice..
R (rough)- no pneumonia
S (smooth)- pneumonia
Heat-killed S bacteria "transformed" R bacteria to a form that causes pneumonia
Hershey-Chase Exp/ Virus
Genetic material in virus DNA or protein?
DNA= double helix
Sugar-phosphate "backbone" connects nucleotides in chain.
Antiparellel(5* one way has to match up with 3* other way)
Hydrogren bonds between bases holds DNA strands together
Replication as a process
Double-stranded DNA unwinds, breaks hydrogen bonds.
New strand is formed by pairing complementary bases w/old strand.
2 Molecules are made
Each has 1 new and 1 old DNA strand.
Enzymes in DNA replication
Helicase=unwinds DNA
Primase=adds RNA primer to template strand, initiates process
DNA Polymerase= binds nucleotides to form new strands
Ligase=joins Okazaki fragments and seals other nicks in sugar-phosphate backbone (connects the strands together)

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