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undefined, object
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above, toward the head
below, toward the feet
to the side
toward the front
toward the back
speech as a process: what are the three mechanical systems
1. respiratory- energy source
2. phonatory- sound source
3. articulatory- speech sound source
speech is an overlaid function for all meaning:
air needed from respiratory. sound. speech. all need to work together at all times.
how many pairs of ribs
1-7 are what ribs
vertebrosternal (true)
8-12 are what ribs
vertebrochondral (false)
11- 12 are what kind of ribs
where do the ribs attach
to the sternum
what is the name of the spinal column in the back where ribs are attached
vertebral column
what are the five types of ribs? where are they found and how many of each
1. cervical (neck) 7
2. thoracic (heart and lungs) 12
3. lumbar (lower back) 5
4. sacral (pelvis) 5
5. coccygeal (tailbone) 1 (3-4 are fused
what are the pulmonary system
lungs and airways
what are the two parts of the pulmonary system
1. upper pulmonary system:oral, nasal cavities, pharynx.
2. lower pulmonary system: larynx, bronchial system, lungs
what is included in the chest-wall systme
rib cage, abdomen, diaphragm,
where is the diaphragm located in relation to the rib cage
right below
what is the common name for the trachea
what part of the trachea is closed and what part is open
closed anteriorly and open posteriorly
what are the dimensions of the trachea in an ave adult? how long? how wide?
11 cm long
2.5 cm wide
what is the trachea made of? how many?
16- 20 rings of cartilage
what type of material lines the posterior surface of the trachea
cartilage and smooth muscle
what is the cartilage and smooth muscle similar to
mucus membrane
what is the tissue lining the trachea
what is foudn coming from the epithelium
small hair-like projections from teh trachea called cilia.
what is the function of the cilia (2)
keep things moving in some direction
trap foreign objects (dirt, Dust)
projective function
whta does the bronchial system look like
inverted tree
what is the bronchial system a system of
hollow tubes
what are the three divisions of the bronchial system
1. primary
2. secondary
3. tertiary
what does it look like a pattern of
fractal geometry.
is the number of branches random or specific
what is found at the bottom of the tree
terminal bronchioles which then become respiratory bronchioles which then becomes alveolar sacs at the very end
what is the job of hte alveoli
exhcange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in alveoli
are the lungs symmetrical or asymmentrical
which of the two lungs is bigger? how many lobes for each?
the right is larger with 3 lobes. left has 2 lobes.
what is pleura
part of the lungs
what are two types of pleura
1. visceral pleura- membrane outside the lungs
2. parietal pleura- membrane on the inner surface of thorax
describe visceral and parietal pleura as they are together
are one continuous mambrane folded over itself with the space in between called the pleural space.
what is contained in the pleural space
pleural fluid
what is the color of newborn babies lungs
what is the color of an old persons lungs
what is the difference in color caused by
Function one of the pleurae: what helps establish unity of lungs-thorax unit
negative pressure
the pressure in the pleural space is always
the lungs and torax gets sucked
toward one another
do they move together or against each other
pleural linkage
b/c they get sucked together when torax moves, lungs have to move
function two of pleurae: what type of surface does the pleura provide
smooth friction free surface for movemetn
function three:
provide protection for the lungs.
lung collapses. usually due to some type of puncture. deflation
muscle activity depends on
overall activity
some muscles participate fully in respiration others
facilitate the process
what is the most imp muscle for respiration
how doe sthe diaphragm attach in the body
stretches from one side of ribcage to the other.
what are the two states of the diaphragm
1. resting-shaped lik inverted bowl.
2. active state: flattened bowl. stretches a little further.
the diaphragm makes up the floor of the ______ and the top of the _______
thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity
the position of the diaphragm can effect the overall size of the
thoracic cavity
the diaphragm is a type of what kind of muscle
abdominal muscles
where are the intercostals found
between the ribs.
external intercostals: how many pairs? location?
11 pairs. come from bottom of a rib come down on diagonal angle and insert into rib below.
function of external intercostals
when they contract, you get elevation of the rib cage. increased volume of thoracic cavity
internal intercostals: how many pairs? location?
11 pairs. very similar to external intercostals. diff: they come down on diff able: opposite latis.
external and internal intercostals come down at opposite angles
what is the function of the different angle of the internal and external intercostals
provides protection (barrior) portecting heart and lungs
function of internal intercostals
when they contract, the rib cage is pulled downward. thoracic cavity gets smaller
what are the three muscles of the abdomen that faciliate the process
1. internal and external obliques
2. rectus abdominus
3. transverse abdominal
what is the function of the three
all work together to compress the abdomen.
exert pressure on the
push diaphragm which direction? which is helpful in what?
upward. helpful for exhalation. thoracic cavity volume decreases
two muscles of the thorax (major muscles(
pectoralis major and minor
what do the two muscles do
directly help with inhalation and exhalation
function of major
elevates rib cage for inhalation
function of minor
depresses ribs 3-5
describe inhalation
1. always active process
2. always involves muscles contraction
3. happens when alveolar pressure is negative
describe exhalation
1. passive process during quiet breathing.
2. invovles muscle relaxation
3. active process during forced exhaltion.
4. invovles contraction of abdominal muscles
5. happens when alveolar pressure is possitive
inspiration-expiration: according to boyles law: air lows in direction of
lower pressure. inhalation-> lifting rib cage: pressure drops: air flows in direction of lower pressure
what is resting expiration? when does it happen? how long does it last? what is the pressure?
for a brief instant in time. right at end of exhallation. lung pressure (alveolar)= environement pressure
what happens with air exchange during resting expiration
no air goes in and no air goes out. happens in an on going fashion. at the end of every breath.
lung volumes: is there ability to influence?
no. anatomically driven. they are what they are
lung volume is...
how much air in the lungs at any given time.
resting tidal volume/tidal breathing: what is it? what does it depend on? factors?
volume of air exchanged during a specific task. depends on task demands: running, talking, sitting. factors: fitess, build, age, gender, size.
resting tidal volume/ tidal breathing serves as a reference point: describe
you know what the lungs are capable at rest. then you can compare during other tasks
what is resting tidal volume/tidal breathing measured in
inspiratory reserve volume
volume/quantity of air that a person can inhale after natural inhalation.
IRV range (adults)
1500-2000 cc
IRV air is in addition to what
air taken in during resting tidal volume
expiratory reserve volume
max amount of air that can be exhalled after a normal expiration.
ERV range (adults)
1000-2000 cc
is ERV less or more than IRV
a little bit less than IRV
residual volume
max amount of air remaining in lungs after max exhalation.
residual volume increases with
RV range (adults)
1000-1500 cc
inspiratory capacity
max amount of air you can take in after regular exhalation
functional residual capacity: what is it a combo of? what is it?
combo of ERV and RV. volume of air contained in the lungs after natural exhalation.
ave. Functional Residual Capacity in young adults? how compare to other age groups?
2500-3000 cc (less in older adults and less in children)
vital capacity? what is it made up of?
total amount of air available for life and speech. (max inhalation to max exhalation)

what is the typical VC in adults
total lung capacity? what is it a combo of?
total amount of air the lungs could possibly hold.

what is the typical TLC in adult males? typical TLC in adult females?
6000cc males
5000cc females
what are the four difference between breathing for speech and breathing for life?
1. location of air intake
2. time rations for inhalation-exhale
3. volume of air inhale per cycle/ portion of VC utilized
4. muscle activty during exhalation
location of air intake: quite breathign?
speech breathing?
nose (QB)
mouth (SB)
time rations: QB? SB?
QB: 40% inhale; 60% exhale
SB: 10% inhale; 90% exhale
volume of air inhaled per cycle: QB? SB? how much utilized?
QB: inhale up to 50% VC, exhale down to 40% VC. 10%VC utilized

SB: inhale up to 60% VC. exhale down to 35-40% vc. 20-25%VC utilized
loud speech: Same questions
40%VC utilized. need more air: more force: speak louder.
child speech: VC USED? why?
40% vc used. smaller lungs
muscle activity during exhalation: QB? SB?
QB: inhalation active, exhalation passive (recoil forces- muscles must relax after contracting)

SB: controlled exhalation using abdominals
problems that may effect speech: (3)
1. inadequate air supply- in take problems. limited vital capacity
2. inefficent breath control- limited access to vital capacity due to muscular problems
3. loss of air pressure due to inadequate valving (muscle weakness)
Ptrac: air pressure at level of trachea
Poral: air pressure at level of oral cavity
general principles guiding management of respiratory breakdowns: (2)
evaluation of static and dynamic breathing.

management of inhalation and exhalation
why imp to regulate management of inhalation and exhalation? how treat?
if you don't take in enough air, you won't have enough to exhale and will effect speech. individualized nature of treatment. same general format but different.q
management can effect all subsystems: meaning
when working with someone you need to look at the whole picture, family, respiration, communication needs, etc. not just a pair of lungs with limited vital capacity
why do we care about breathing in this course?
1. lungs are beginning pint of whole process.
2.lungs are originating point of generating sound
instrumentation of estimating volumes/capacities of pressures: why want to know this? respiratory therapy?
to see if the person is producing enough air to speak. respiration therapy, want to know capabilities if someone has sustained some damage.
piece of instrumentation used to estimate lung volume
parkinson's disease: location
neurological disease
represents a loss ( of some degree) to muscle control
nature of disorder
muscle rigidity
speech characteristics
articulation-speech sound distortions. lips, tongue, etc. can't hit the proper positions that they once could.
(intonation) flat inflection. absense of appropriate intonation. more monotone quality to voice. imp in pragmatics. and understanding in lang.
laryngeal control
reduiced vocal intensity. hard to comunicate in a restaurant. might end up staying home, embarrasing too hard. can effect social life, confidence, def interupts lief activities.
respiratory control:
chest wall shape (compressed) lead to limited vital capacity. outside layer of pleura is attached to thorax. lungs go for the ride. lungs have reduced room for air. compromised tracheal pressure. comprmised oral pressure- air pressure in mouth
compensatory strategies:
maximize pressure and control egressive air stream(going out)-> in order ot produce speech

- reduced sentence lenght
- frequent inhalation
- speaking at beginning of exhalation cycle
increase vocal intensity
strengthen vocal fold clossure. enhance laryngeal control thorugh sustained vowel phonation. through sustained ( continuant) consonant phonation.
cerebellar disease: nature of problem:
poor coordination of voluntary movement
speech characteristics:
varied, according to nature and scope of damage. horseness, intensity prob: dif with pitch.
respiratory function:
smaller than normal vital capacity. muscular problems leading to coordination problems( msucles related to breathing). pressure loss due to poor valve control
managment strategies
begin utterance significantly above resting expiratory level (movement where all pressure are equal- no air going in- none going out)
spinal cord injury: nature of problem:
poor/no enervation to muscles
repiratory function:
vital capacity may be below normal. difficulty accessing IRV, ERV. larger abdominal volumes. will effect size of thoracic cavity
management strategies:
clavicular to abdominal breathing. yawn-sign (for vocal fold hyper function) type of vocal fold excercise.
cerebral palsy: nature of damage:
reduced oxygen to brain often druing birth but at any time in life. muscle regidity maybe throughout whole body
voice problem: nature of problme:
central (neurological) peripheral (damage to actual vocal folds)
larynx sits atop the
first tracheal ring
approximate average length in adult males? adult female?
male: 44 mm
fe: 36 mm
position higher in throat in:
infants (high pitched)
primates and ealry human (size differance. man today is larger)
positioned anterior to
C4 through C6 (cervical vertebrae
4 functions of larynx
1. protection of airway
2. locks air into the lungs for certain activities (physical activity)
3. phonation- act of producing sound
4. swallowing
hyoid bone is shaped:
U shaped
hyoid bone forms attachment for the
articulates with what other bone?
no other bone

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