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What are the 3 main lobes of the cerebellum?
anterior, posterior, floculonodular
What separates the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum?
the primary fissure
What are teh three functional divisions of the cerebellum? Include both names for each
paleocerebellum= spinocerebellar
neocerebellum = pontocerebellum
What is found in each of the following: pontocerebellum, vestibulocerebellum, spinocerebellum?
pontocerebellum: white area and part of anterior and posterior lobes

vestibulocerebellum: flocculus and nodulus

spinocerebellum: central location and includes vermis
What is the last branch off the vertebral artery before the basilar artery?
The posterior inferior cerebellar artery, PICA
What is the last branch off teh basilar?

What supplies the mid cerebellum?
superior cerebellar artery (SCA)

Anterior inferior cerebellar artery
What is function of the: vestibulocerebellum


maintains equilibrium

spinocerebellum: receives spinal inforamation. influences MUSCLE TONE and MUSCLE SYNERGY

pontocerebellum: receives cerebral information for manual dexterity; increases w/ skill. ex. writing and piano
What does the cerebellum do in ALL veretebrates?

What does the tectum relay in all vertebrates?
processes vestibular information

visual and auditory infomation to the cerebellum
Is the dentate nucleus found in non-mammals? What does it function with?
no it is a mammailian structure

functions with the pontocerebellum (has the potential to grow the most)
what happens as the cerebral cortex grows?
The cerebellar cortex increases too
How is the posterior column functionally similar to the cerebellum
The dorsal column relays conscious proprioception while the cerebellum relays unconscious proprioception
What are the funcitons of the cerebellum?
mm synergy

monitors both the motor and sensory centers

fine tunes (modulates)motor activity
If the cerebellum is lesioned will there be paralysis?

cerebellum has indirect and direct control of skeletal muscles however
What are the motor output tracts?
corticospinal, vestibulospinal, reticulospinal, rubrospinal
What does all proprioceptive information input have to do?
check in with the cerebellum
What are the spinocerebellar tracts? Which go thru the inferior cerebellar peduncle and which thru the superior?
dorsal spinalcerebellar--inferior peduncle

cuneocerebellar--inferior peduncle

ventral spinocerebellar--superior peduncle
What types of sensations do the dorsal spinocerebellar and cuneocerebellar deal with?
small fields, pressure, joint, spindles
Where does the cuneocerebellar have its affect? dorsal spinaocerebellar?
above T6

dorsal: below T6
What type of fields does the anterior spinocerebellar tract deal with?

Are the tracts ipsi or contralateral?
large filds.

NOTE: ipsi AND contralateral tracts.

enters thru superior cerebellar peduncle
Which peduncle do the following travel thru: trigeminalcerebellar




trigeminocerebellar: thru sup peduncle

tectocerebellar: thru sup

olivo, reticulo, vestibulo thru inferior cerebellar peduncle
Where does input from the cortex go enroute to the cerebellum?
pontine nuclei and inferior olivary nucleus
What is found in the following layers of the cerebellar cortex

molecular layer

purkinje layer

granular layer?
molecular layer: basket and stellate

purkinje layer: purkinje cells

granular: climbing and mossy fibers, golgi cells, granular cells
What do purkinje cells receive? What do they output?
excitatory input from mossy fibers. output: inhibitory
What do the deep nuclei send out?
excitatory output
Where do climbing fibers come from?
inferior olivary nucleus

all others are mossy
How do most input fibers enter the cerebellum?
Almost all input fibers enter cerebellum as mossy fibers.
Where do the inputs synapse first?
Synapse first on deep cerebellar nuclei, and then onto granule cells.
Where do excitatory synapses occur?
Also synapses onto glomerulus
What makes up a glomerulus?
3 component structure made up of granule cell dendrite, golgi cell axon, and mossy fiber axon
What cells are inhibitory?
golgi, basket, and stellate are inhibitory
Where does infor from the inferior olive come from specifically?

What are the fibers called? Where do they synapse first?
Info from inferior olive from the hand specifically. It’s climbing fibers synapse first on the deep cerebellar nuclei. Then onto the purkinje cell, then onto basket cell. Excitatory stimulization.
Which cells is inhibitory to the purkinje cell?
the basket cells
Which cell is the only that projects from the cerebellar cortex to the deep nuclei (only negative output)?
the purkinje fibers
which type of fiber goes directly to the purkinje cell?
What does a mossy cell do in the cerebellar cortex?
spreads out
Hwo many purkinje cells are there with flat dendritic trees?

How mnay granule cell axons does each receive?

How many granule cells are there?
15 million


3 billion granule cells
What type of info does the human brain carry?

What type of info does a mossy fiber carry?

climbing fibers?

What are the general and specific motor modalities?
The human brain has specific and general information.

Mossy fibers carry general information

climbing fibers carry direct??

General and specific motor modalities: pyramidal and extrapyramidal.
What is the function of the pontocerebellum?
integration of sensory aspects of discrete voluntary movements from the ipsilateral limbs for synergistic movements

manual dexterity
Are the deep cerebellar nuclei constantly inhibited or excited?
both!! (excited by climbing and mossy and inhibited by purkinjie)

time delay is crucial

output is EXCITATORY
Name the deep nuclei.
interpositus, fastigial, and dentate
What does the spinocerebellum control?

What part of the limbs?
corrects tremors, postural reflexes, mm tone of entire body, PROXIMAL movements of ipsilateral limbs (not hands?)
What is function of the vestibulocerebellum?
balance, conjugate eye movements
What would happen if the flocculonodular lobe was removed?
can't stand or walk--fall down


can use hands and eat w/o tremor
What happens if you have a midline lesion damaging the floccularnodular lobe and vermis? What could cause this?
An medulloblastoma could cause this:

common in children--alcohol also destrosy this area

symptoms: wide staggering ataxic gate and nystagmus and involuntary movement of one or both eyes
What would a lesion in the spino or pontocerebellar cause?

Which side?
ipsilateral--no paraylisis

but could see the following sympotoms:


decomoposition of movement





intentional or essential tremor evident when making a purposeful movement
What is the work meaning decreased muscle tone?

posture and gait disturbance?

What is the word for muscles that weaken or tire easily?

for can't stop movement at a desired point?

for slurred, hesitating speech?


What type of surgical intervention is available for cerebellar dysfunction?
radiosurgery--stop intention tremors w/electrode. pass current at the tip in order to destroy a specific area

use a gamma knife

Deep Brain stimulation w/ placement of premanent electrode into the ventral intermediate nucleus. uses chronic electrical simulation controlled by the patient

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