This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

OB prelim 1


undefined, object
copy deck
*Big Five dimensions of personality
1.Extraversion: tendency to seek stimulation and enjoy the company of others; predicts only for jobs with interactions 2.Agreeableness: tendency to be compassionate toward others; few but negatively correlated to mental illness 3.Conscientiousness: tend
*Hawthorne Studies
earliest systematic research that tried to determine how the design of work environments affected performance -varied illumination or work pauses and saw that prouction improved with each change because people felt special/important but eventually return
*Job Characteristics Model and five core job dimensions
jobs can be designed so people get enjoyment out of their jobs and care about the work they do (skill variety, task variety, task significance, autonomy, feedback)
. Operant Conditioning (Instrumental conditioning)
form of learning in which people associate the consequences of their actions with the actions themselves. Our actions produce consequences and our actions in the future will depend on what those consequences are. Positive reinforcement (people learn to pe
360-degree feedback
process of using multiple sources from around an organization, and outside it, to evaluate the work of an individual- often used for leaders to learn what people think about them
Achievement motivation
need for achievement refers to strength of individuals desire to excel at various tasks. High need achievers tend to steer away from tasks that are very easy and very difficult. Low achievement motivations prefer very easy and very difficult tasks. If it
Action learning
- involving a continuous process of learning and reflection that is supported by colleagues and that emphasizes getting things done
Administrative Model
recognized bounded limitations that cause people to make satisficing not optimal decisions because of their imperfect view of the problem and not knowing the consequences or the full info -bounded discretion
Attitudes and three ways
relatively stable clusters of feelings, beliefs and behavioral intentions toward specific objects, people or institutions. This means that changing attitude may require considerable effort; consist of three major components. Evaluative, cognitive and beha
process through which individuals attempt to determine the causes behind others behavior
Autocratic leadership style Participative leadership style Autocratic-delegation continuum model
-leader makes all decisions unilaterally - leader permits subordinates to take part in decision making and also permits them a considerable degree of autonomy in completing routine work activities.
Avoidance goal orientation
desire to achieve success to avoid appearing incompetent and to avoid receiving negative evaluations from others
B.F Skinners Law of Effect
tendency for behaviors leading to desirable consequences to be strengthened and those leading to undesirable consequences to be weakened. Antecedents (conditions leading up to the behavior)  Behavior (activity performed)  Consequences (r
Charismatic Leadership
have self-confidence, a vision, extraordinary behavior, recognized as change agents, environmental sensitivity
Classical organizational theory
focused on the efficient structuring of overall organizations; ideal way to efficiently organize work in all organizations
Consequences of Job Dissatisfaction (3)
1. employee withdrawal (voluntary turnover and absenteeism) 2. honeymoon and hangover effect 3. unfolding of voluntary turnover (shock match decision frame)
Contingencies of reinforcement
various relationships between ones behavior and the consequences of that behavior (positive, negative, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction).
Contingency approach
organizational behavior is affected by a large number of interacting factors and an individuals behavior will be contingent upon many different variables at once.
Contingency theories of leader effectiveness
recognize that certain styles of leadership are more effective in some situations than others
Continuous reinforcement
which all desired behaviors are reinforced
Core self-evaluation
peoples fundamental evaluations of themselves, their bottom-line conclusions about themselves 1. Self-esteem: overall value one places on oneself as a person 2. Generalized self-efficacy: persons beliefs about his or her capacity to perform specific t
Correspondent inferences
judgments about peoples dispositions, their traits and characteristics, that correspond to what we have observed of their actions. They may not always be correct because while underlying characteristics have a huge role in determining their actions, exte
Dangers of Using Stereotypes in Organizations
1. Negative Organizational Impact- leads to inaccurate information and it means that the fate of an individual is pre-decided. 2. Negative Individual Impact- it often influences people to live up to these negative beliefs (blacks are dumb and believe it)
decision making
process of making choices from among several alternatives Analytical model of decision-making process
decision style model (four major decision styles)
-individuals have different decisions styles such as directive, analytical, conceptual and behavioral
Dispositional Model of Job Satisfaction
job satisfaction is relatively stable disposition of an individual; people who like their jobs will usually always like their jobs. Genetic factors play a role in job satisfaction; people have inherited tendencies that influence their job attitudes. This
Empowered decision making
vesting power for making decisions in the hands of employees themselves without seeking supervisory approval; rationale is that people who know the job do it best. It doesnt give up their responsibility but rather give them general guidance about how to
- passing of responsibility and authority form managers to employees; most respond favorably to this.
equity and equity theory (motivating by being equitable)
how ones pay compares to that of others doing similar work - people are motivated to maintain equitable or fair relationships; compare themselves to others by focusing on outcomes (rewards like pay) and inputs (contributions like time and effort) Compa
executive coaching
involves custom-tailored, one-on-one learning aimed at improving an individuals leaders performance
process through which responses that are no longer reinforced tend to gradually diminish in strength
Four types of position power
Legitimate, reward, coercive, information,
framing and the imperfect nature of making decisions (three types)
tendency for people to make different decisions based on how the problem is presented to them - risky choice, attribute framing effect, goal setting
goal commitment
extent to which people invest themselves in meeting a goal (people try harder when they believe they have a reasonable chance of doing so) Guidelines for setting effective performance goals: 1. Assign specific goals 2. Assign difficult but
Grassroots leadership
turns the traditional management hierarchy upside-down by empowering people to make their own decisions
Great person theory
view that leaders posses special traits that set them apart from others and that these traits are responsible for their assuming positions of power and authority. These characteristics include the desire to lead or leadership motivation.
Heuristics and the two types
- mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that allow us to make simple decisions about complex; -availability and representative -doesnt allow people to collect as much info as possible to make superior decisions
high growth need strength
job characteristics model most effective in describing people who have a high need for personal growth and development on the job
High-performance work systems
organizations that offer employees opportunities to participate in decision making, provide incentives for them to do so, and emphasize opportunities to develop skills. This leads to employees who perform their jobs very safely.
How is personality measured?
1. Objective tests: Paper-and-pencil measures of who we are. Most widely used method of measuring both personal and mental abilities. 2. Projective tests: asking people what they see in ambiguous pictures. Not very popular. 3. Reliability and validity:
How to develop varieties of organizational commitment
hire workers with similar values, profit-sharing plans, align with employees interests
image theory
recognizes that decisions are automatic and intuitive because people choose decisions that best match their individual goals plans or beliefs, not others -like administrative model because proscriptive/descriptive
Intelligence: Three Major Types
1. Cognitive Intelligence: ability to understand complex ideas, adapt effectively to environment, learn from experience, engage in various forms of reasoning and overcome obstacles by careful thought. It is very broad and contains many different skills an
Interactionist perspective
how we behave is based on both who we are and the contexts in which we operate Facilitators- personality and situational factors can encourage certain behaviors or Constraints- factors that discourage certain behaviors
Internal and External causes of behavior
-explanations based on actions for which the individual is responsible (person violated rules) External causes of behavior- explanations based on situations over which the individual has no control (boss is cruel and arbitrary)
job satisfaction and affect
strong correlation between the two
Kelleys Theory of Casual Attribution
- way to judge if its internal or external 1. Consensus- extent to which other people behave the same way as the person we are judging. High similarity is high consensus, low similarity is low consensus. 2. Consistency- extent to which the person we
Leader and Leadership
individual within a group or an organization who wields the most influence over others -process whereby one individual influences other group members toward the attainment of defined group or organizational goals; involves noncoercive influence, is goal-
Leader match
practice of matching leaders (based on their LPC scores) to the groups whose situations best match those in which they are expected to be most effective
Leader-member exchange (LMX) model
theory suggesting that leaders form different relations with various subordinates; the in-group is favored and the out-group is not. Leaders distinguish between the two very early on and based on little information; leaders favor members of their in-group
Leadership development
practice of systematically training people to expand their capacity to function effectively in leadership roles
relatively permanent change in behavior occurring as a result of experience
LPC contingency theory and LPC
leader effectiveness is determined both by characteristics of leaders (their LPC scores) and by the level of situational control they are able to exert over subordinates
personality trait involving willingness to manipulate others for ones own purposes (mach scale). High machs are willing to do whatever it takes to succeed. However, it is not closely related to success in jobs that deals with autonomy. They are successfu
managerial implications of expectancy theory
1. Clarify peoples expectations; make the desired performance attainable so people know whats expected of them and how to achieve it 2.cafeteria-style benefit plans (allowing employees to select their benefits from a menu of available alternatives) 3
Maslows need hierarchy theory
five different types of need that are activated in a particular order, from lowest or basic needs that work upward to higher-level needs (physiological, safety, social, esteem, self-actualization needs)
Measuring Job Satisfaction in three ways
1. interviews 2. critical incident technique 3. questionnaires
Mood states
like mood swings and can strongly affect anyone at almost any time
motivating by altering expectations (expectancy theory and 3 parts)
people are motivated to work when they expect that they will be able to achieve the things they want from their jobs ; they think about what they have to do to be rewarded and determines how much the reward means to them; combined with other aspects to in
motivating by structuring jobs (job design and job enlargement/enrichment)
motivation can be enhanced by making jobs more appealing to people - practice of expanding content of job to have more variety; increases horizontal job loading -practice of giving employees not only more jobs to do but more tasks to perform as highe
Motivation and car example
set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behavior toward attaining some goal (Analogy: Arousal would be a cars engine, direct would be the steering wheel and maintain would be the persistence to reach your destination) and all three must
Motivation and three important points
1. Motivation is not synonymous to job performance (only one aspect) 2. People are motivated by more than just money (interesting and challenging jobs) 3. multifacted, motivated by more than one thing
Motivation by setting goals (goal setting and goal setting theory)
-people are motivated to strive for and attain their goals -people are motivated to attain goals because doing so makes them feel successful. People set goals and direct their attention to them so that their actions are compatible with reaching their goa
Motivational Fit Approach (and its two main components)
- motivation is enhanced by a good fit between the traits and skills of individuals and the requirements of the jobs they perform; often dependent on one another (motivation traits- achievement and anxiety; motivation skills- emotion and motivation conrol
multiple domains of intelligence
through cognitive, emotional and cultural intelligence
leadership development tool designed to help people make connections to others to whom they can turn for information and problem solving
Nonprogrammed decisions
for no ready-made solutions; for unique and novel tasks usually with upper-level personnel
Normative decision theory
theory of leader effectiveness focusing primarily on strategies for choosing the most effective approach to making decisions
Objective probabilities and Subjective probabilities-
- based on concrete, verifiable data - personal beliefs or hunches about what will happen gut feelings
observational learning (or modeling)
the form of learning in which people acquire new behaviors by systematically observing the rewards and punishments given to others; occurs when someone acquires new knowledge vicariously or by observing what happens to others. The person whose behavior is
Organization and Organizational Behavior
organizaton-structured social system consisting of groups and individuals working together to meet some agreed-upon objectives. Organizational behavior- deals with human behavior in organizations; multidisciplinary field that seeks knowledge of behavior
Organizational Behavior Management (OB MOD)
practice of altering behavior in organizations by systematically administering rewards (OB Mod); example of treating employees with rewards after receiving a certain number of points; shown to improve everything from quality to productivity
organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB)
voluntary acts of cooperation that go beyond formal job requirements; highly connected to job satisfaction unlike job performance
Organizational Commitment
degree to which people are involved with their organizations and interested in remaining within them; usually independent of job satisfaction (nurse likes job but hates hospital)
Organizational politics
- unauthorized uses of power that enhance or protect ones own or ones groups personal interests without regard for the well-being of others or their organizations
Partial reinforcement (intermittent reinforcement)
only some desired behaviors are reinforced; rewards are administered intermittently with some desired responses reinforced and others not
Path-goal theory of leadership (four types)
subordinates will be motivated by a leader only to the extent they perceive this individual as helping them to attain valued goals.(instrumental or directive, supportive, participative, achievement
Perceptual Biases and six examples
predispositions that people have that causes them to misperceive others in various ways. 1. Fundamental attribution error- people usually explain others behaviors using internal causalities rather than external. 2. Halo Effect- tendency for our overall
Person-job fit
extent to which the traits and abilities of individuals match the requirements of the jobs they must perform. The more closely they match, the more productive and satisfied they tend to be on those jobs
Person-Oriented vs. Production-Oriented Leaders and grid training
-initiating structure is concerned mainly with production and focus primarily on getting the job done -Consideration are concerned primarily with establishing good relations with their subordinates and being liked by them. -multi-step process designed
Personal identity
that define a particular individual
Personal power and four types
power that one derives because of ones individual qualities or characteristics (rational persuasion, referent, expert, charisma)
Personalities of organizations
- Boy scout: friendly, attentive to people - Innovative: interesting, unique - Dominant: successful, popular - Thrifty: poor, sloppy - Stylish: modern, contemporary
the unique and relatively stable patterns of behavior, thoughts, and emotions shown by individuals
Positive affectivity Negative affectivity
- tendency to experience positive moods and feelings in a wide range of settings and conditions - tendency to experience negative moods; are two independent dimensions and with high and low levels for each one.
Power position power
capacity to change the behavior or attitudes of others in a desired manner -power based on ones formal position in an organization
Pragmatic leadership
based on methodically developing solutions to problems and working them through in a thorough manner
Principles of Learning (4)
set of practices that make training effective (most effective to combine as many as possible) 1. Participation- active involvement in the process of learning; more active participation leads to more effective learning 2. Repetition- process of repeatedl
Programmed decisions
highly routine decisions made because of preestablished organizational routines and procedures; made by lower-level personnel
Rally round the flag effect
tendency for followers to make positive attributions about their leaders when they appear to be working to keep things together during a crisis situation
Rational-Economic Model
states that individuals choose the optimal decision. is normative/prescriptive because doesnt actually describe people's decisions
Resource-dependency model
: proposes that a subunits power is based on the degree to which it controls the resources required by other subunits; although subunits may contribute something to an organization, those who contribute the most powerful resources are the most powerful o
Role of Perception in Organizational Activities
1. Employment Interviews Candidates use impression management (efforts by individuals to improve how they appear to others) techniques during interviews that are met with great success. 2. Performance Appraisal- process of evaluating employees on variou
Schedules of Reinforcements and Four types
rules governing the timing and frequency of administration of reinforcement; in reality some might be combined a. Fixed interval schedules- a fixed period of time must elapse between administration of reinforcements (issuing paychecks every Friday at 3:0
Situational leadership match
theory suggesting that the most effective style of leadership- either delegating, participating, selling, or telling- depends on the extent to which followers require guidance and direction, and emotional support. Based on task behavior and relationship
Social identity
who a person is, as defined in terms of his or her membership in various social groups
Social identity theory
conceptualization recognizing that the way we perceive others and ourselves is based on personal identity and social identity
Social influence and tactics for exerting influence (10)
doing something that affects someone else in one way or another, successful or not (rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, personal appeals, coalition-building, collaboration, persuasion, legitimating,consultation, ingratiation,exchange
Social Information Processing Model
people adopt attitudes and behaviors in keeping with the cues provided by others with whom they come into contact. This theory suggests how subtle comments or things can affect job satisfaction
Social perception
process of combining, integrating, and interpreting information about others to gain an accurate understanding of them. It is very automatic and occurs all the time.
Social skills
capacity to interact effectively with others (similar to emotional intelligence; are the single best predictor of job performance ratings and assessments of potential for promotion) a. Social perception: accuracy in perceiving others, including accurate
belief that all members of specific groups share similar traits and are prone to behave the same way. We rely on these mental shortcuts so we can save time from learning about them as individuals
Strategic Contingencies Model
: the extent that a department is able to control the activities of other subunits by 1) reducing the level of uncertainty experienced by other subunits 2) occupies a central position in the organizations 3) its activities are highly indispensable to the
Strategic decisions
made by groups of high-level executives and have important long-term implications for the organization; guide the future of the place
Stretch goals
goals that are so difficult that they challenge people to rethink the way they work, establishing unprecedented levels of performance (horizontal and vertical)
Substitutes for leadership
view that high levels of skill among subordinates or certain features of technology and organizational structure sometimes serve as substitutes for leaders, rendering their guidance or influence superfluous
Theory X and Theory Y
x- negativistic approach that people are lazy y- positive approach that people will work under the right circumstances
Top-down decision making
practice of vesting decision-making power in the hands of superiors as opposed to lower-level employees; most popular way of organizing
Transformational leadership
leadership in which leaders use their charisma to transform and revitalize their organizations; rely on intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation
Two-dimensional model of subordinate participation
describes the nature of the influence leaders give followers; first dimension is autocratic-democratic and second dimension is permissive-directive.Four possible patterns follow
Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction
Found that satisfaction and dissatisfaction actually stemmed from two different sources, not from the presence or absence of certain variables. 1. Motivators- associated with high levels of satisfaction; variables that had to do with the work itself or
Types of Goal Orientations
Learning goal orientation- desire to perform well because it satisfies an interest in meeting a challenge and learning new skills (relates to self-efficacy and feedback) Performance goal orientation- desire to perform well to demonstrate ones competence
Value Theory of Job Satisfaction
job satisfaction depends primarily on the match between the outcomes individuals value in their jobs and their perceptions about the availability of such outcomes. This theory focuses on discrepancies between what they value and what they want: the greate
varieties of organizational commitment (3)
1. continuance- more benefits for staying longer 2. affective- loyal based on similar values 3. normative- afraid of what other people will think

Deck Info