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Sullivan General Human Physiology Lecture 2


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Chemistry of the Body
(points of interest)
* Atoms are the basic units of matter that form all chemical elements
* 108 known chemical elements
* 24 essential in the human body
Name the major elements of the body:
What percentage of the body do the comprise?
Name them
4 major elements:
99.3% of body
H hydrogen
O oxygen
N nitrogen
C carbon
Name the mineral elements in intracellular and extracellular fluid :
What percentage of the body do the comprise?
Name them
7 mineral elements:
0.7% of body
Name the essential TRACE ELEMENTS of the body:
What percentage of the body do the comprise?
Name them
13 essential trace elements:
0.01% of body
Fe, I, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, Cr,
Se, Mo, F, Sn, Si, V
Atoms are ...
the smallest particle of an element that has the properties of the element
Atoms are composed of particles:
1. protons
2. neutrons
3. electrons
the Atomic number is the ...
number of protons
the Atomic weight is the ...
molecule ...
2 or more atoms bonded together (combined) to form a substance (ie: CO2 or H2O)
Bonds are ...
ELECTRICAL ATTRACTIONS that hold atoms in molecules
Ionic Bonds:
1 atom gains electrons
1 atom loses electrons
atoms that have gained or lost electrons ...
become charged (+/-)
cations (+)
anions (-)
Covalent bonds:
* electron(s) are shared between two atoms
* strongest bonds
* most molecules in body are covalently bonded
* pair of electrons represented by line (-)
H, O, N, C
How many bonds to they form?
H forms 1 bond
O forms 2 bonds
N forms 3 bonds
C forms 4 bonds
Polar covalent bonds:
* electrons shared, but not equally
* electrons are held closer to one atom than the other
An example of a POLAR COVALENT BOND:
* between H and O of H2O
* the electron shared between H and O is closer to the O, making that part of the molecule slightly negative and the H part less negative (positive).
* causing the water molecule to be POLAR
Molecules with many polar bonds are called
polar molecules
Molecules without polar bonds
(electrically neutral)
non polar molecules
Hydrogen bonds
* an attraction between H in one polarized bond an the O, N or F in a polarized bond in another molecule
* weak bond
* important in many molecular reactions
* bonds one H2O molecule to another H2O molecule
* (+) polarized regions near a H of one water molecule are attracted to (-) polarized regions of O in adjacent water molecules.
dissolving in water means:
being electrically attracted to water
what molecule is part of many chemical reactions in the body?
What is the most abundant solvent in the body?
Hydrophilic molecules
* have polar bonds/or ionized groups
* dissolve well in water
Hydrophobic molecules
* bonded with covalent bonds
* do NOT dissolve well in water
Amphipathic molecules
* one end of molecule is polarized and other end is not polarized
in water, amphipathic molecules ...
align with polar regions toward the water and nonpolar regions away.
substance that dissolves in solvent
liquid in which solute dissolves
solute dissolved in a solvent
amount of solute present in a given quantity of solution (molar/ per cent)
Define MOLE
a gram-molecular weight
How many ml in a LITER
1000 ml (milliliters)
How many L in a MILLILITER?
0.001 in 1 liter
a 1 M solution =
1 mole of solute in a liter
a .5 M solution =
.5 mole of solute in a liter
a 2 M solution =
2 moles of solute in a liter
Percent % Solution:
if ... solute is a solid
(g/solvent to 100ml)
.9g NaCl in enough water to make 100 ml = .9% NaCl
Percent % Solution:
if ... solute is a liquid
(ml/solvent to 100 ml)
.1 ml HCl in enough water to make 100 ml = .1% HCL

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