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Chapter 8: Epidemiological Applications in Community Health Nursing


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causative factor invading a susceptible host through an environment favorable to produce disease, such as a biologic or chemical agent
analytical epidemiology
a form of epidemiology that investigates causes and associations between factors or events and health
attack rate
a type of incidence rate defined as the proportion of persons eposed to an agent who develop the disease, usually for a limited time in a specific population
in determining causalit, a systematic error due to the way the study is designed, how it was carried out, or some factors related to the variable(s) being studied
case-control study
an epidemiologic study design in which subjects with a specified disease or condition and a comparable group
the determination based on evidence or reasoning process that an event or state resulted from (or was caused by) some other events, exposure, characteristics, or a combination of them
cohort study
an epidemiologic study design in which subjects without an outcome of interest are classified according to past or present (or future) exposures or characteristics and followed over time to observe and compare the rates of a particular health outcome in the various exposure groups
a bias that results from the realtion of both the outcome and study factor (exposure or charateristic) with some third factor not considered in analysis
cross-sectional study
a study in which health outcomes and exposures or characterisitcs of interest are simultaneously ascertained and examined for associtation in a population or sample, providing a picture of existing levels of all factors
cyclical time patterns of disease
one example is seasonal fluctuation of disases
descriptive epidemiolgoy
a form of epidemiology that describes a disease according to its person, place, or time
factors that influence the risk for or distribution of health outcomes
pattern of a health outcome in a population; the frequencies of the outcome according to various personal characteristics, geographic regions, and time
all factors internal and external to a clinet that constitute the context in which the client lives and that influence and are influeneced by the host and agent-host interactions
a rate of disease clearly in excess of the usual or expected freq in that population
study of the distribution and factors that determine health related states or events in a population, and the use of this info to control health probs
event-related cluster
disease patterns measure from a point of exposure, event, or experience
human or animal that provides adequate living conditions for any given infectious agent
incidence rate
the freq or rate of new cases of an outcome in a pop; provides an estimate of the risk of disease in tha population over the period of observation
levels of prevention
a 3 level model of interventions based on the stages of disease, designed to halt or reverse the process of pathological change as early as possible, therby preventing damage
natural history of disease
course or progression of a disease process from onset to resolution
negative predictive value
proportion of persons with a negative test who are disease free
point epidemic
a concentration in space and time of a disease event, such that a graph of freq of cases over time shows a sharp point, usually suggestive of a common exposure
positive predictive value
proportion of persons with a positive screening of diagnostic test who do have the disease
prevalence rate
the proportion of existing cases of a health outcome in a population at a given time
primary prevention
a type of intervetntion that seeks to promote health and prevent disease from developing
a measure of the frequency of a health event in a defined population during a specified period of time
refers to the precision of a measuring instrument, specifically its consistency from one time of use to another and its accuracy
the probability of some event r outcome within a specified period of time
application of a test to people who are as yet asymptomatic for the purpose of classifying them with respect to thie likelihood of having a particular disease
secular trends
long-term patterns of morbidity or mortality
the extent to which a test identifies those individuals who have the condition being examined
the extent to which a test identifies those individuals who do not have the disease or condition being examined
systematic and ongoing observation and collection of data concerning disease occurrence in order to describe phenomena and detet changes in freqency or distribution
tertiary prevention
intervention that begins once the disease is obvious; the aim is to interrupt the course of the disease, reduce the amount of disability that might occur, and begin rehabilitation
the acuracy of a test or measurement; how closely it measure what it claims to measure. In a screening test, validitiy is assessed in terms of the probability of correctly classifying an individual with regard to the disease or outcome of interest, usually in terms of sensitivity and specificity
web of causality
complex interrelations of factors interacting with each other to influence the risk for or distribution of health outcomes

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