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W.O AP Psych Exam Study Cards


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Define Psychology
"The science of behavior and mental processes"
What is the difference between clinical psychologists and psychiatrist?
-Psychiatrists can prescribe medication
-Psychologists study behavior and mental processes alone.
Define Behavior
Observable actions of a person or animal.
Rene Decartes' role in psychology was what?
Created the theory of "Interactive Dualisim." which is his explination for how the mind and body are separte entities yet interact to provide conscious experience(s).
Wilhem Wundt's role in Psychology was what?
Known as the "Founder" of psychology. First to apply laboratoy techniques to study of the mind. Also the first to write a book on psychology.
Define Structuralism
Study of most basic compnents (structures) of conscious experience(s).
What is Introspection?
An examination of one's own thoughts and feelings
William James' role in psychology was what?
Created the Functionalism study since he opposed Wundt's and Titchener's approach.

Emphasized studying the purpose of function of behavior and mental experience.
Sigmund Freud's rol in psychology was what?
Developed the psychoanalysis technique.
Created the psychidynamic theory.
John Watson's role in Psychology was?
Was a behaviorist psychologist who
established the Psychological School of Behavioris
Describe this perspective: Biological
Study of the physiological mechanisims in the brain and nervous system that orginize and conrtol behavior.
Describe this perspective:Behavior
View of behavior based on experiences or learning.
Describe this perspective: Cognitive
Study of mental processes (thinking, feeling, learning)
>>Behavior is influenced by stae of mind.
Describe this perspective: Socio-Cultural
The study of psychological differences among people living in different cultural groups.
Describe this perspective: Humanist
Focus on conscious forces, self perception, free-will, human potential.
(A more positive view of basic forces then Freud's)
What is the "Myelin Sheath" and what is it's role?
Fatty insulator over axon. Helps to transport messages across the synapse.
Describe: Action Potential
The neural membrane opens at one area and allows the positively charged ions to rush in and the negative ions to rush out. When this happens, the charge inside the neuron rises to approximately +40 mv for just a brief moment, but long enough to create a domino effect. As action potentials happen over and over within the neuron, it carries the electrical signal (the information) with it. The neural impulse is like a series of action potentials happening over and over again.
What is "Refractory Period?"
The refractory period is the period of time following an Action Potential when it is more difficult to excite the neuron to fire another Action Potential
What is "Threshold of Excitation?"
The Smallest amount needed to trigger a neuron to fire.
(This amount is different for every nueron so even though it might fire in one, it might not be enough in the next,)
What are neurotransmitters?
Naturally occurring chemicals in the brain which transmit messages from one nerve cell to another.
State the functions of the following transmitters:
Dopamine a neurotransmitter, found in the brain that regulates movement, balance and walking.

Serotonin a neurotransmitter involved in e.g. sleep and depression and memory

Norepinephrine an excitatory neurotransmitter involved in alertness, concentration, aggression and motivation.

GABA a chemical messenger in the brain, spinal cord, heart, lungs, and kidneys, which sends messages telling the body to slow down. GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.

Acetylcholine is a nuerotransmitter which stimulates muscle tissue

Endorphins the brain's natural chemicals that elevate mood or kill pain
What is the difference between the Somatic NS and the Autonomic NS?
-SNS: part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements through the action of skeletal muscles, and also reception of external stimuli.

-ANS: Part of the Peripherial Nervouse System that controls the organs and muscles.
What is the difference between the Sympathetic NS and the Parasympathetic NS?
-SNS: triggers the "fight or flight" response.

-PSN: it acts to reverse the effects of the sympathetic nervous system.
How do EEG's, CT scans, and MRI's study the brain?
EEG: measurement of the electrical activity of the brain by recording from electrodes placed on the scalp, or in the special cases on the cortex.

CT Scan: a medical imaging method employing tomography where digital processing is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation. The word

MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging which creates a tomography image of the brain.
State the function of the following structures:
1.cerebral cortex
Cerebral Cortex:It is the outermost layer of the cerebrum and has a grey color. (Hence the name "gray matter".

Thalamus: thalamus relays info & translates incoming messages from sense receptors. (Except for smell)

Hypothalamus: located in the forebrain region, it governs motivational and emotional responses behaviors
State the Function of the four lobes of the brain:
1. Temporal
4. Frontal
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What are some of the functions of the left hemposphere?
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What are some of the functions of the right hempishpere?
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