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Ch 1 Soc 430


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kinship ties that people more or less automatically acquire when they are born or when they marry
assigned kinship
a married couple with children in which the father worked for pay and the mother did not
breadwinner-homemaker family
a sociological theory that focuses on inequality, power, and social change
conflict theory
kinship ties that people have to construct actively
created kinship
the view that human behavior can be explained in terms of evolutionary pressure to behave in ways that maximize the chances of reproduction
evolutionary psychology
a sociological theory that views people as rational beings who decide whether to exchange goods or services by considering the benefits they will receive, the costs they will incur, and the benefits they might receive if they were to choose an alternativ
exchange theory
a style of life that emphasizes developing one's feelings and emotional satisfaction
expressive individualism
benefits or costs that accrue to others when an individual or business produces something
a sociological theory that focuses on the domination of women by men
feminist theory
the tendency for people to obtain public goods by letting others do the work of producing them-metaphorically, the temptation to ride free on the backs of others
free-rider problem
a sociological theory that attempts to determine the functions, or uses, of the main ways to which a society is organized
functionalist theory
the social and cultural characteristics that distinguish women and men in a society
a speculative statement about the relationship between two or more factors
a style of life in which individuals pursue their own interests and place great importance on developing a personally rewarding life
the period between the last few decades of the twentith century and the present day
late modern era
a survey in which interviews are conducted several times at regular intervals
longitudinal survey
a marriage system in which people are allowed only one spouse
the costs imposed on other individuals or businesses when an individual or business produces something of value to itself
negative externalities
the ability to draw conclusions about a social situation that are unaffected by one's own beliefs
a study in which the researcher spends time directly observing each participant
observational study
a marriage system in which men or women are allowed to have more than one spouse
benefits received by others when an individual or business produces something but for which the producer is not fully compensated
positive externalities
analysis of survey data by the people who collected the information
primary analysis
two or more individuals who maintain an intimate relationship that they expect will last indefinitely-or in the case of a parent and child-until the child reaches adulthood-and who live in the same household and pool their income and household labor
private family
one adult, or two adults who are related by marriage, partnership, or shared parenthood, who is/are taking care of dependents and the dependents themselves
public family
things that may be enjoyed by people who do not themselves produce them
public goods
the process through which individuals take in knowledge, reflect on it, and alter their behavior as a result
a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem
scientific method
analysis of survey data by people other than those who collected it
secondary analysis
a set of roles and rules that define a social unit of importance to society
social institution
a study in which individuals from a geographic area are selected, usually at random, and asked a fixed set of questions
a sociological theory that focuses on people's interpretations of symbolic behavior
symbolic interaction theory
a style of life that emphasizes self-reliance and personal acheivement, especially in one's work life
utilitarian individualism
the countries of western Europe and the overseas english-speaking countries of the U.S., Canada, Australia, and New Zealand
western nations

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