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Psychology: Sleep and Dreams


undefined, object
copy deck
forms of experience that depart form the normal subjective experience of the world and mind
altered state of consciousness
naturally occurring 24 cycle
circadian rhythm
sleep stage characterized by rapid eye movements and a high level of brain activity
an instrument that measures eye movements
difficulty falling asleep or staying awake
disorder where a person stops breathing for brief periods while sleeping
sleep apnea
sleep walking
disorder in which sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of walking activities
experience of waking up and being unable to move
sleep paralysis
abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal
night terrors
involves some experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner
general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding
-when a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally -evokes a response study of behaviors that are reactive
Classical Conditioning
something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism
unconditioned stimulus (US)
reflexive reaction that is reliably elicited by an unconditional stimulus
Unconditioned response (UR)
stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism
conditioned stimulus (CS)
reaction that resembles an unconditional response but is produced by a conditional stimulus
conditioned response (CR)
phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together
conditioning where the US is a stimulus that acquired its ability to produce learnign from an earlier procedure in which it was uses
second order conditioning
gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented
tendency of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented
spontaneous recovery
some underlying neutral changes are saved no matter how many extinction trials are conducted
CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original used during acquisition
avoiding a certain taste or food that one associates with sickness
food aversion
a propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others
biological preparedness
-type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future -exploration of behaviors that are active
operant conditioning
behavior that required an organism to do something, solve a problem , or otherwise manipulate elements of its environment
instrumental behaviors
the principle that behaviors that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tend to be repeated and those that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated
law of effect
behavior that an organism produces that has some impact on the environment
operant behavior
any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
any stimulus or even that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
positive reinforcement= something_______is______
desirable is presented
negative reinforcement= something_______is_______
undesirable, removed
postive= something______
added, removed
T or F: Reinforcement is more effective than punishment
circumstances when external rewards can undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior
overjustification effect
reinforcements are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made
fixed interval schedule
behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement
variable interval schedule
an operant conditioning principle in which reinforcements is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made
fixed ratio schedule
an operant conditioning principle in which the delivery of reinforcements is based on a particular average number of responses
variable ratio schedule
operant condition principle in which only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement
intermittent reinforcement
the fact that operant behaviors that are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules resist extinction better than those maintained under continuous reinforcement
intermittent reinforcement effect
learning that results from the reinforcement of successive approximation to a final desired behavior
condition in which something is learned but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the future
latent learning
mental representation of the physical features of the environment
cognitive map
learning that takes place by watching the actions of others
observational learning
learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of information acquisition
implicit learning
dream's apparent topic or superficial meaning
manifest content
a dreams true underlying meaning
latent content
theory that dreams are produced when the brain attempts to make sense of activations that occur randomly during sleep
activation synthesis model
emergence of the ability to understand the world
cognitive deveolpment
stage of development that begins at birth and lasts through infancy
sensorimotor stage
theories about or models of the way the world works
occurs when infants apply their schemas in novel situations
occurs when infants revise their schemas in light of new information
the idea that objexts continue to exist even when they are not visible
object permanence
stage of development that begins at about 18-24 months and lasts until adolescence
stage of development that begins at about age 2 and ends at age 6 in which children have a preliminary understanding of the physical world
pre-operational stage
stage of development that begins at 6 and ends around age 11, where children acquire a basic understanding of the physical world and a preliminary understanding of their own and others minds
concrete operational
notion that quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the objects appearance
stage of development beginning at age 11 lasting through adulthood in which children gain a deeper understanding of their own and others minds and learn to reason abstractly
formal operation stage
the failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers
idea that the human behavior is guided by mental representations
theory of mind
emotional bond that forms between newborns and their primary caregivers
behavioral test developed by Mary Ainsworth that is used to determine a child's attachment style
strange situation
4 different styles of attachment
secure, avoidant, ambivalent, disorganized
set of expectations about how a primary caregiver will respond when a child feels insecure
internal working model of attachment
characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity
stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor
pre-conventional stage
stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by the event to which it conforms to social rules
conventional stage
stage of moral development at which the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values
post conventional stage

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