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Soc 151


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Primary Group
a group characterized by intimate, long-term, face to face association and cooperation
Secondary Group
Compared with a primary group, a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity. Its members are likely to interact on the basis of specific statues.
Out Group
groups toward which one feels antagonism.
Reference Group
a group that we use as a standard to evaluate ourselves
Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes
assumptions of what people are like, whether true of false
Asche Experiment
designed to test how peer pressure to conform would influence the judgment and individuality of a person.
the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms
Conflict Perspective
stresses that in order to understand society, we must understand the struggle between groups (race, gender, age, social class, etc.). The power groups will always try to maintain their status through manipulation, exploitation, and control.
Durkheim's term for a condition of society in which people become detached from the norms that usually guide their behavior
an approach, pioneered by Erving Goffman, in which social life is analyzed in terms of drama or the stage. also called Dramaturgical Analysis
Symbolic Interaction
a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another
Social networks online
Functional Perspective
1. The doctrine that the function of an object should determine its design and materials. 2. A doctrine stressing purpose, practicality, and utility. 3. Philosophy The doctrine in the philosophy of mind according to which mental states are defined by their causes and effects.
Social Status
a status that cuts across the other statues that an individual occupies
Social Structure
the frame work that surrounds us, consisting of the relationships of people and groups, which gives direction to and sets limits on behavior
Mechanical Solidarity
Durkheim's term for the unity (a shared consciousness) that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks
the use of one's own culture as a yard-stick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors
Organic Solidarity
Durkheim's term for the interdependence that results from the division of labor; people depending on others to fulfill their jobs
Cultural Relativism
not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
Culture Wars
challenges in core values are met with strong resistance be the people who hold them dear
Hunting and Gathering Society
had a subsistence economy- a type of economy in which human groups live off the land and have little or no surplus
Industrial Society
a society based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels
Bio-tech Society
a society whose economy increasingly centers around the application of genetics- human genetics for medicine, and plant and animal genetics for the production of food and materials
2nd level of personality=
2.)ego- the rational, reality-oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on the innate pleasure seeking drives of the id
(develops as infants realize their most basic desires arent always going to be met by
*Ego channels desire of id for immediate gratification into most advantageous direction for individual
swiss psychologist in field of cognitive development (how ppl obtain, process, and use info)
Piagets 4 stages of cognitive development
1) Sensorimotor (birth-2 yrs)-
children understand world only thru sensory contact and immediate action b/c they cant use language or symbolic thought. Toward end of 2nd yr, comprehend object permanence(things out of sight still exist)
2) Preoperational stage
(2-7 yrs)
children begin to use words as mental symbols and form mental images. still limited with logic, problem solving, and change in appearance doesnt always change physical properties
3) Concrete Operational
childen think in terms of tangible objects and actual events. Can draw conclusions about consequences of physical actions without having to do the action. Begin to take rold of others and empathize w/ viewpoints.
4) Formal Operational
( 12yrs-adolescence)
able to engage in highly abstract thought and understand places, things, and events never before seen. Can think about future and different courses of action
Problems w/ Piagets theory
-says little about differences among children
-doesnt take into account how genger affects social development
Kohlbergs 3 levels of MORAL REASONING
Preconventional (7-10 yrs)
Conventional ( 10-adulthood)
Postconventional (few adults reach this stage)

believes Kohlbergs theory was developed solely by men, and believes men are more concerned with law and order, but women tend to analyze social relationships and consequences of behavior.
totality of our beliefs and and feelings about ourselves.
*made of 4 components---
1.physical self self self
4.psychological self

Self identity
our perception about what kind of person we are

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